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Electronic Library of Ukrainian Literature

Ukrainian Studies

 

UKRAINIAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH

SELECTED ARTICLES IN JOURNALS AND COLLECTIONS

PUBLISHED SINCE 2000.

An Annotated Bibliography

by

MARTA TARNAWSKY


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This on-going selected annotated bibliography will attempt to document the most important articles on Ukrainian literature published in Anglo-American scholarly journals and collections. It is a continuation, albeit with a more narrow focus, of my comprehensive bibliographies covering books, articles, translations and book reviews, and published as Research reports by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies at the Universty of Alberta since 1988. Readers interested in earlier publications are encouraged to view the electronic variant of my bibliography at http://sites.utoronto.ca/elul/English/ULE/ .

Prepared especially for the The Ukrainian Quarterly A Journal of Ukrainian and International Affairs, the present bibliography will be continued in subsequent issues*, as new materials become available to the compiler and as the articles are read and annotated. Transliteration of Ukrainian writers' names and titles of their work in the compiler's annotations follows the Library of Congress system, without diacritical marks; it may differ from the one used in the journal and from direct quotations from the articles cited. Annotations attempt to provide a factual non-biased comment, with an occasional critical note, whenever the factual content of the material is found to be misleading or incorrect. Occasional quotations from the sources themselves used in annotations are meant to give the reader both the substance and the stylistic flavor of the original.

* The portion of the bibliography reproduced below appeared in five issues of The Ukrainian Quarterly A Journal of Ukrainian and International Affairs, namely: Volume LXV, Numbers 1–2 (Spring-Summer 2009) pp. 78–118; Volume LXV, Number 4 (Winter 2009) pp. 355–381; Volume LXVI, Numbers 1–2 (Spring-Summer 2010), pp. – ; Volume LXVII, Numbers 1–4 (Spring-Winter 2011), pp. – ; and .

Ukrainian Literature in English by Marta Tarnawsky is a comprehensive bibliography of Ukrainian literature in English. The entire bibliography consists of the following sections:


Ukrainian Literature in English by Marta Tarnawsky is the preeminent bibliographic resource for the study of Ukrainian literature in English. It consists of separate publications covering particularl chronological segments and genres. The first segments have been published as three research reports by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press. CIUS is also preparing a fourth publication covering the years 1965-1979. All four segments are available on the internet, just follow the links above. Remeber, you must check in all the bibliographies (pre-65 books, pre-65 articles, 1966–1979, 1980–90) separately.

The simplest way to search for an existing translation is to use this tool to scan all the separate parts of Ukrainian Literature in English. The search will produce links to web pages that you must then open to find your search item. If your search does not produce a result, that does not mean that no such translation exists. The particular work you seek may have a different name or it may have been published in years not covered by this bibliography. The webmaster and the author would be very grateful for your feedback, particularly reports of incorrect, broken, or missing links. You can send e-mail to the author or the to the webmaster. Here is the search tool:

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Selected Articles in Journals and Collections Published since 2000

 

A1. Aheieva, Vira. "Mykola Khvylovy and expressionism." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 45-59.

Vira Aheieva's article on Khvylovyi was originally written in Ukrainian and has been translated for this special issue in honor of Jaroslav Rozumnyj by Myroslav Shkandrij, the quest editor of the issue. Aheieva discusses literary influences on the prose of Mykola Khvylovyi of German and Russian expressionists, such as Leonhard Frank, Georg Heym, Kasimir Edschmid, Boris Pilniak. For other articles in this issue see A77.

A2. Andrukhovych, Yuri. "Europe - my neurosis." Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.1 (Spring 2006): 64-68.

A speech given on 15 March 2006 on the author's acceptance of the "Leipzig Book Prize for European Understanding". The prize was given to Andrukhovych for his novel Dvanadtsiat' obruchiv published in a German translation. The speech, however, has a political character and does not deal with literature.

A3. Andryczyk, Mark. "Bu-Ba-Bu: poetry and performance." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 257-272.

Andryczyk focuses on the work of Iurii Andrukhovych, Oleksandr Irvanets' and Viktor Neborak - the trio who formed the literary group Bu-Ba-Bu, active in the 1990's - discussing the idea of performance as the key element of their creative philosophy. Poetry quotations are given in the original Ukrainian with literal English translations in footnotes [i.e. Irvanets': "Tse ie poeziia naivyshcha" (12 lines); Andrukhovych: "Ahov, moi malen'ki chorteniata" (24 lines); Neborak: "Prychynna (ty idesh odna mizh lilii)" (26 lines); "Lialia-Bo" (9 lines)]. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A4. Andryczyk, Mark. "New images of the intellectual in post-Soviet Ukrainian literature." Ukraine on its meandering path between East and West. Andrej N. Lushnycky & Mykola Riabchuk, eds. Bern, New York: Peter Lang [©2009]. (Interdisciplinary studies on Central and Eastern Europe, v.4). 183-200. Bibliography: 199-200.

The author examines the prose works of contemporary Ukrainian writers Volodymyr Dibrova, Iurii Izdryk, Kostiantyn Moskalets', Oksana Zabuzhko, Iurii Andrukhovych and Ievheniia Kononenko. These writers, in Andryczyk's view, introduced to Ukrainian literature three new prototypes of the Ukrainian intellectual: Andryczyk calls them "the swashbuckling performer", "the ambassador to the West" and "the sick soul". The Ukrainian intellectual as "an enchanting performer", according to Andryczyk, is represented best in Iurii Andrukhovych's novels Perverziia and Moskoviiada; "the ambassador to the West" appears primarily in Oksana Zabuzhko's Pol`ovi doslidzhennia z ukrains'koho seksu, Izdryk's Votstsek, Dibrova's Burdyk, Kononenko's Imitatsiia. For examples of the "sick soul" Andryczyk cites, in addition to the previously discussed Zabuzhko's, Izdryk's and Andrukhovych's novels, a work .

by Moskalets' entitled Vechirnii med. Fragments from Vechirnii med are quoted in hitherto unpublished Mark Andryczyk's translation, fragments from Andrukhovych's Perverzion are quoted as translated by Michael M. Naydan (2005), Zabuzhko's "Field work in Ukrainian Sex" trans. by Halyna Hryn in Agni no.53. (2001) and some paragraphs from Wozzeck (2006) are quoted in Marko Pavlyshyn's translation.

A5. Andryczyk, Mark. "Three posts in the center of Europe: postmodern characteristics in Yuri Andrukhovych's post-colonial prose." Ukraine at a Crossroads. Nicolas Hayoz, Andrej N. Lushnycky, eds. Bern, New York: Peter Lang [©2005]. (Interdisciplinary studies on Central and Eastern Europe, vol.1). 233-252. Bibliography: 251-252.

Andryczyk attempts "to find points where postmodernism and post-colonialism intersect" in the prose of Iurii Andrukhovych. He examines in some detail Andrukhovych's novels Rekreatsii, Moskoviiada, and Perverziia. Andrukhovych's prose, says Andryczyk, "is playful, humorous and innovative and includes stylistic devices that are characteristic of literature referred to as 'postmodern writing'", but it is also "driven by a post-colonial search for the Ukrainian identity and is a celebration of the right to explore that identity in literature."

A6. Babotová, Lubica. "Transcarpathian Ukrainian literature in the twentieth century." Perspectives on modern Central and East European literature: Quests for identity. Selected papers from the Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies. Ed. by Todd Patrick Armstrong. [Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York]: Palgrave [©2001]. 38-46. Notes: 45-46.

Babotová provides a survey of Ukrainian literature of the Transcarpathian territory ruled at the beginning of the 20th century by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, later by Czechoslovakia and the USSR. She lists both the writers of the Ukrainian orientation and those of the Russian orientation. The two groups, says Babotová, "differed in their understanding of national identity, both in their point of departure and in their ideological orientation. The more secular Ukrainian group argued for the integrity of the Ukrainian nation, while the more religious, abstract-conservative Russian group, with its passive messianic tendencies, believed in a 'single, undivided' Russian nation." This article - originally a paper read at the Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies in Warsaw in August 1995 - was translated from the Ukrainian by Vadim Marchuk, Anatoly Vishnevsky and Todd Patrick Armstrong. A note about the author appears on p. xv.

A7. Bahry, Romana. "Subversive themes in Dovzhenko's 'Earth'." ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 38.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. Dovzhenko, says Bahry, "subverts the socialist realist narrative by using a poetic associational form which envelops the linear narrative within a circular thematic structure within which the images generate themes that contrast with and oppose the narrative." The focus of the paper is on Dovzhenko's film, rather than on the short story.

A8. Balan, Jars. "Vasyl Stefanyk's literary monument to the Ukrainian pioneers of Canada." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 51-61.

Vasyl Stefanyk never visited Canada, but a number of his works have Canadian themes. Of special importance and interest is the novella Kaminnyi khrest, whose protagonist is modeled on a real immigrant to Canada named Stefan Didukh, born in Stefanyk's native village - Rusiv in 1839. Jars Balan characterizes the novella, provides biographical data about Stefan Didukh, and cites Stefanyk's letter where the writer acknowledges "a most benign influence" of the man on his youth and his connection to Kaminnyi khrest. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A9. Cap, Jean-Pierre. "The Holodomor in historical and literary context; The Yellow Prince by Vasyl Barka." Ukrainian Quarterly. 64.1-2 (Spring-Winter 2008): 119-132.

Vasyl Barka's novel Zhovtyi kniaz' about the Great Famine of 1932/33 is discussed on pp. 126-130 as part of a subchapter on "Literary perspective".

A10. Chernetsky, Vitaly. "The trope of displacement and identity construction in post-colonial Ukrainian fiction." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 215-232.

Chernetsky provides a critical discussion of Iurii Andrukhovych's and Oksana Zabuzhko's prose, especially of the novels Rekreatsii, Moskoviiada and Perverziia by Andrukhovych and the novel Polovi doslidzhennia z ukrains'koho seksu by Zabuzhko. Chernetsky argues that "in these texts we find a major instance not only of an aesthetic depiction of, but also of a theoretical reflection on, the concept of displacement with relevance far beyond Ukraine's borders.

The article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A11. Chumachenko, Anna. "The twain shall meet: diaspora and Ukrainian modern drama in Larissa Onyshkevych's interpretation." Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 96-99.

A review article of two anthologies of Ukrainian drama edited by Larissa Onyshkevych, i.e. Blyzniata shche zustrinut'sia (Lviv: Chas, 1997) and Antolohiia modernoi ukrains'koi dramy (Kyiv, Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, 1998).

A12. Dmytry Chyzhevs'kyj: the man and his work. Proceedings from an international conference organized by the Slavonic Library (at the National Library of the Czech Republic) and three institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences - the Slavonic Institute, the Institute of Czech Literature and the Institute of Philosophy, held in Prague, June 13-15, 2002. Prague: Slavonic Library at the National Library of the Czech Republic, 2004. 485 p. illus.

Contributions in Czech, Ukrainian, English, Russian and German. The Czech title on cover: Dmytro Čyževskyj: osobnost a dĩlo. Contents of the English language material: Introduction (pp.8-9). • George G. Grabowicz: Dmytro Čyževskyj: Literary history and the question of identity. (pp.23-41) • Ladislav Matejka: Dmytro Čyževs'kyj: Between East and West (pp.177-182)." Dmitry Shlapentokh: Whether Russia belongs to the West in the view of Dmytro Čyževskij (pp.320-338).

The conference was organized to mark the 25th anniversary of Chyzhevs'kyi's death and covers a variety of scholarly fields. Grabowicz, the author of a book-length critique of Chyzhevs'kyi's History of Ukrainian Literature, attempts in his essay to revisit his dialogue with Chyzhevs'kyi's historiography and to reflect on new developments in the field. " Matejka discusses Chyzhevs'kyi's connections to Prague and his research on 18th century Czech philosopher and poet Jan Amos Komensk. " Shlapentokh surveys the trends in Russian history between self-centered isolation and European integration, and claims that Chyzhevs'kyi "believed that Russia as well as other countries should be integrated into Europe without loosing their national cultural specificity".

A13. Fizer, John. "Taras Shevchenko's homonymous poetic and artistic works: from text to painting or vice versa? Depictions: Slavic Studies in the Narrative and Visual Arts in Honor of William E. Harkins. Ed. by Douglas M. Greenfield. [Dana Point, CA.: Ardis, ©2000] (Studies of the Harriman Institute, Columbia University). 193-198. illus.

The article deals with the relationship between Shevchenko's poetry and his artistic works, especially between Shevchenko's epic poem "Kateryna" and his 1842 painting of the same title. Fizer concludes that literature and art were for Shevchenko "coextensive means to discover and to experience aesthetic and extra-aesthetic truth. The subservience of one to another," says Fizer, "would have necessarily dictated both formal and semantic equivalences. What we have instead are asymmetries or, borrowing a term from physics, broken equations."

A14. Fizer, John. "Ukrainian quest for modernity v. Canadian-Ukrainian retreat into ancestral past.' Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.3 (Fall 2000): 343-346.

A review article of Two Lands, New Visions. Stories from Canada and Ukraine. Ed. by Janice Kulyk Keefer and Solomea Pavlychko. Trans. from Ukrainian by Marco Carynnyk and Marta Horban. [Regina, SK]: Conteau Books, 1998. 312 p.

A15. Grabowicz, George G. "Paradoxical renaissance abroad: Ukrainian émigré literature, 1945-1950." in History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe. Junctures and Disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ed. by Marcel Cornis-Pope and John Neubauer. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co. [2004] 2: 413-427. (Comparative history of literatures in European languages, 19).

A critical examination of Ukrainian post-war literary life in the Displaced Persons camps of Allied occupied Germany and Austria. "The writing of the DP period was defined not only by the intense reciprocity between writer and reader, but also by shared experiences", says Grabowicz. Two phenomena, according to Grabowicz, are unique to this period, namely "the social-cum-organizational setting and the overarching notion of a 'Great Literature'." The period was dominated by "the preeminent literary organization, MUR" [Mystets'kyi Ukrains'kyi Rukh] and the great discussion about "Velyka literatura" (a Great Literature) which consisted of a series of "injunctions and exhortations, pious or grandiose desiderata, and polemics." "In terms of its illumination of the literary process", says Grabowicz, this debate is of the same order of importance as the 'Literary discussion' in the latter half of the 1920's, which posed the question whether Ukrainian literature in Soviet Ukraine should choose its own path or develop in the shadow of Russian literature..." Although MUR's program "emphasized artistic excellence and openness to different styles and ideas," says Grabowicz, "there is little doubt that the search for artistic excellence was subordinate to the national task." In its deep structures, according to Grabowicz, "the program of MUR paralleled to some degree the abhorred Socialist Realism" and the deep contradictions in the program "its espousal of a goal-oriented literature, one that derives its essential raison d'être from the specific extra-literary goal of the political and cultural independence of the fatherland, against the full artistic freedom and the search for artistic excellence - became the fatal flaw that made the collapse of MUR inevitable." Grabowicz points out that while MUR "associated the goal of "A Great Literature" with an orientation towards the West", towards Europeanism, the émigré Ukrainian literature of the DP camps was quite distant from a literary Europe "determined by cosmopolitanism, pluralism, and the predominance of the Avant-garde."

A16. Grabowicz, George G. "Subversion and self-assertion: The role of Kotliarevchshyna in Russian-Ukrainian literary relations." in History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe. Junctures and Disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ed. by Marcel Cornis-Pope and John Neubauer. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co. [2004] 1: 401-408. (Comparative history of literatures in European languages, 19).

Kotliarevshchyna, according to Grabowicz, "should be taken as a generic and non-evaluative term designating the nuanced and broadly ramified narrative style initiated by Kotliarevs'kyi's travesty of Virgil's Aeneid..." It illustrates such issues as ethnicity in literature, populism and canon-formation and has "remained a model that affects mutual perceptions, particularly Russian perceptions of Ukrainian culture..." Kotliarevshchyna illustrates also "that literary expression can be a basic vehicle for forming ethnic and then national identity" says Grabowicz. He takes issue with the traditional negative definition of kotliarevshchyna of such scholars as Serhii Iefremov and Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. He defends kotliarevshchyna as"the first broadly disseminated style of a new Ukrainian literature", a style that was absorbed not only by Ukrainian writers (Kvitka, Shevchenko, Kulish), but also by Gogol. The basic function of kotliarevshchyna, according to Grabowicz, "was to mock the inflated, self-important, artificial, and ultimately 'inhuman' world of imperial society and normative canonic literature." Kotliarevshchyna, in addition to its linguistic functions, "served as a mask or shield that allowed the author to assume without direct risk a subversive stance", says Grabowicz. "While projecting subversion and parody", kotliarevshchyna "also functioned as a mask of sincerity and solidarity with the narod." In conclusion Grabowicz claims that "the specifically Ukrainian rather than Russian Socialist-Realism draws its sustenance from the traditions and archetypes of kotliarevshchyna and the legacy of populism that animates it."

A17. Grabowicz, George G. "Ukraine after independence: a balance sheet for culture". Society in Transition: Social Change in Ukraine in Western Perspectives. Ed. by Wsevolod W. Isajiw. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, [2003]. 307-326.

A paper read as an after-dinner talk at the conference held in Toronto in November 1999. Discusses culture, its various definitions and its role in society and political implications. Does not deal with literature.

A18. Hnatiuk, Ola. "Nativists's discourse in contemporary Ukrainian literature". Aleksandra Hnatiuk. ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 166.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. The paper analyses the anti-occidental attitudes expressed by Ukrainian young and middle-age writers and intellectuals over the past fifteen years.

A19. Hnatiuk, Ola. Nativists vs. Westernizers: Problems of cultural identity in Ukrainian literature of the 1990's". Slavic and East European Journal. 50.3 (Fall 2006): 434-451. Biblio. 449-450. Ukrainian summary: 450-451.

Nativism, in Hnatiuk's view, differs from traditionalism and chauvinism, but is hostile "not as much toward Russian culture (the threat of Russification), as toward Western (modernized) patterns". Today's debate about cultural identitity resembles that of "narodnyky" vs. "modernists" of a century ago. In contemporary Ukrainian literature nativism is represented by the so called "Zhytomyr school", with writers such as Ievhen Pashkovs'kyi, Viacheslav Medvid', Volodymyr Danylenko, Mykola Zakusylo, while the modernizers whom they oppose center around the so called "Stanyslaviv phenomenon" and include such writers as Andrukhovych and Izdryk. Hnatiuk's article appears in a special issue entitled "Mirrors, windows and maps: the topology of national identity in twentieth century Ukrainian literature" with guest editor Larissa Onyshkevych. (cf. A95).

A20. Holowinsky, Ivan Z. "National consciousness in the writings of Ivan Franko." Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 298-304.

Ivan Holowinsky deals with Franko's concept of national consciousness - his idealism, and his beliefs in voluntarism and collective responsibility - as reflected in his writings. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Ivan Franko and edited by Leonid Rudnytzky. (cf. A67).

A21. Holowinsky, Ivan Z. "A psychodynamic interpretation of the Holodomor in Mykola Rudenko's poem 'The Cross'." Ukrainian Quarterly. 64.1-2 (Spring-Winter 2008): 36-43.

The author, a psychologist, analyzes Rudenko's poem from the point of view of etnopsychology and concludes that "Rudenko's poem is a powerful testament of how faith - grounded in Christian philosophy and supported by cultural archetypes - enabled Holodomor victims to overcome psychological trauma."

A22. Hryckowian, Jaroslaw. "Ivan Franko in the context of Polish literary scholarship." Trans. by Ihor Zielyk. Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 305-310.

Hryckowian provides a survey of scholarly studies about Ivan Franko in Poland and expresses a regret about their paucity. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Ivan Franko and edited by Leonid Rudnytzky. (cf. A67).

A23. Hryn, Halyna. "The Renaissance modality: Khvyl'ovyi, Zerov, and the rearticulation of Ukrainian cultural identity." ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 168-169.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. The paper focuses on the Ukrainian literary discussion of the 1920's and specifically on the recently discovered correspondence between Mykola Khvylovyi and Mykola Zerov.

A24. Hundorova, Tamara. "The canon reversed: new Ukrainian literature of the 1990s." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 26.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2001): 249-270.

With the birth of Ukraine's independence, Ukrainian writers "felt released from the pressures of ideology", says Hundorova. "Literature seemed to be a field of freedom, of the pleasurable, self-sufficient play of the imagination, and of individual self-expression. This sense of freedom predominated during the first half of the 1990s and was nourished by the idea of a national renaissance." In the second half of the decade, however, according to Hundorova, "the conflict among the different literary groups, tendencies, and ideologies intensified, disappoint-ment with postmodernism spread, and, as a mass audience emerged, the incentive to write didactic literature became stronger." Hundorova focuses in her article on two literary orientations - neo-modernism and postmodernism - and the "increasingly visible and productive opposition" between its practitioners.

A25. Ilnytzkyj, Oleh S. "The contents and structure of the Concordance"/ Oleh S. Ilnytzkyj, George Hawrysch. A Concordance to the poetic works of Taras Shevchenko. New York, Edmonton: Shevchenko Scientific Society, USA; Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2001. v.1, pp.xi-xvii.

The Concordance is a work in four volumes and is in Ukrainian or Russian. The editors' introduction appears both in English and in Ukrainian. This key word in context concordance, according to the editors, provides "a full accounting of the location and textual setting of every occurrence of every word in Shevchenko's Ukrainian- and Russian-language poetic oeuvre. Eighteen thousand four hundred and one unique word-forms are attested, pinpointed, sorted, and contextualized in each of their 83,731 appearances over a span of 22,241 lines." This concordance - the first of its kind in Ukrainian literature - is based on the first two volumes of Shevchenko's works published in Kyiv in 1989-1990 under the title Povne zibrannia tvoriv u dvanadtsiaty tomakh.

A26. Ilnytzkyj, Oleh S. "The 'imperial condition' and the rise of 'national' cultures: the case of Russia and Ukraine." ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 174-175.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. Cases of writers such as Nikolai Gogol raise questions of national attribution and/or appropriation. The author proposes a new category: the "imperial" to explain culture developed under imperial conditions.

A27. Ilnytzkyj, Oleh S. "Italy in the works of Petro Karmansky." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 79-91.

Petro Karmans'kyi, characterized by Ilnytzkyj as "a poet, translator, publicist, diplomat, and political activist", "a fascinating example of the modernist intellectual in the twentieth century", spent several years in Italy, first as a student at the Ukrainian Catholic Seminary in Rome and later in 1919-1921 as a diplomatic representative to Vatican of the Ukrainian National Republic. Ilnytzkyj analyzes Karmanskyi's translations from the Italian and his own prose and poetry on Italian themes. Quotations from Karmans'kyi's poetry are in Ukrainian with line-by-line English translations provided in footnotes. [i.e. "Zdaietsia, ne davno... U kelii kholodnii" (24 lines)]. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk with guest editor Roman Senkus. (cf. A75).

A28. Ilnytzkyj, Oleh S. "Rape in Taras Shevchenko's Trizna: Textual fact or theoretical fiction?" Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 3-17.

Ilnytzkyj's essay on Shevchenko's "Trizna" is a polemic with George G. Grabowicz's interpretation of the poem made in his article "Nexus of the Wake" published in Harvard Ukrainian Studies in the 1979/1989 issue. Contrary to Grabowicz's claim, says Ilnytzkyj, there is, in his view, no sexual violence and thus no rape in "Trizna". The article is part of the Jaroslav Rozumnyj festschrift, with guest editor Myroslav Shkandrij. (cf. A77).

A29. Ivashkiv, Roman. "Postmodern approaches to representation of reality in Ukrainian and Russian literatures: the prose of Yuri Andrukhovych and Viktor Pelevin." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.1 (Summer 2007): 37-61.

Ivashkiv examines similarities and differences between two novels: Perverziia by the Ukrainian writer Iurii Andrukhovych and Omon Ra by the Russian writer Viktor Pelevin and claims that both writers "have contributed significantly to revitalizing their national literatures through a postmodern representation of an absurd and carnivalesque reality, using multiple narrative voices, playful onomastics, and irony."

A30. Karpiak, Robert. "Demythifying a universal hero: Spyrydon Cherkasenko's vision of Don Juan." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 91-102.

Karpiak discusses Spyrydon Cherkasenko's "dramatic novel" Espans'kyi kabaliero Don Khuan i Rozita, written in 1928. Cherkasenko's work, according to Karpiak, is not only "an important Ukrainian variation on one of the world's great literary themes", but it provides also an interpretation of the hero "consonant with the postmodernist decline of Don Juan from the stature of a Promethean rebel to that of a contemptible libertine." Unlike Lesia Ukrainka's "Kaminnyi hospodar", where, says Karpiak, "the blend of tragedy and irony" elevates the tone and intensifies the emotive quality of the play, "Cherkasenko's rendition of the theme of Don Juan is strongly inclined towards a satirical and sarcastic interpretation."

The article appears in an issue dedicated to Jaroslav Rozumnyj (guest editor: Myroslav Shkandrij). (cf. A77).

A31. Koropeckyj, Roman. "Taras Shevchenko's encounters with the Kazaks." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 9-31.

Taras Shevchenko spent ten years of his punitive exile in Kazakhstan. Roman Koropeckyj analyses the poems Shevchenko wrote in his Kazakhstan exile, as well as his sketches, drawings and paintings on Kazak themes created at the same time. The article is illustrated with b/w reproductions of 11 Shevchenko's art works and his selfportrait from that period. Quotations from Shevchenko's poetry are in the original Ukrainian with literal line-by-line translations provided in the footnotes.[i.e. "A tut burian, pisky, taly..."(10 lines); "Hotovo! Parus rozpustyly" (15 lines); "Iz-za Dnipra shyrokoho" (6 lines); "Blukav ia po svitu chymalo" (14 lines); "Pokynute Bohom" (11 lines)]. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A32. Koscevic, Nevenka. "Jaroslav Rozumnyj: a bibliography." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 181-191.

This unnumbered bibliography of Jaroslav Rozumnyj's writings lists books he edited or co-edited, articles and reviews in books, journals, encyclopedias, newspapers and bulletins in Ukrainian and English. A substantial number of these are on Ukrainian literature. The bibliography is part of an issue dedicated to Jaroslav Rozumnyj (guest editor: Myroslav Shkandrij). (cf. A77).

A33. Koscharsky, Halyna. "The female voice in the poetry of Oksana Zabuzhko and Natalka Bilotserkivets: reinforcing or resisting existing configurations?" Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 287-294.

In comparing the poetry of Oksana Zabuzhko and Natalka Bilotserkivets', Halyna Koscharsky considers Zabuzhko's a "distinctly gendered alternative voice" articulating the female position, while Bilotserkivets's work is characterized as, in general, an ungendered, non-feminist poetry. Brief quotations of Zabuzhko's poetry are in English from her book A Kingdom of Fallen Statues (Toronto, 1996). Two poems by Bilotserkivets are quoted in Ukrainian (with a literal translation in footnotes), i.e. "Saksofonist (v zolotu trubu)" (6 lines); "V zabutim zakutku zanedbanoho mista" (9 lines). This article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A34. Koscharsky, Halyna. "The poetry of Kostiantyn Moskalets, Natalka Bilotserkivets and Viktor Kordun." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 131-138.

Focusing on poetry published in the journal Suchasnist during the 1993-1996 period, Halyna Koscharsky analyzes the work of three contemporary poets Kostiantyn Moskalets, Natalka Bilotserkivets and Viktor Kordun. Unlike the previous generation of poets who had the role as political voices of the nation, the three poets deal with philosophical questions of life and death, everyday existence, personal relationships, nature and religion and are concerned primarily with the self, with social and individual problems. Koscharsky's article is part of the Jaroslav Rozumnyj festschrift edited by the guest editor Myroslav Shkandrij. (cf. A77).

A35. Koznarsky, Taras. "A prisoner of the Caucasus and a captive of vernacular". Toronto Slavic Annual. 1 (2003): 158-167. Notes: 165-167.

About Mykhailo Makarovskyi's narrative poem "Haras'ko abo talan i v nevoli", written between 1843 and 1845 and first published in 1848 after the author's death. Makarovs'kyi's poem is a Ukrainian variation of Pushkin's tale "A prisoner of the Caucasus". Makarovs'kyi's work, says Koznarsky, "devised within the institutional and stylistic framework of Ukrainian vernacular literature of the time, transposes a fashionable romantic tale into the peasant world with its own narrative logic, horizon of expectations, and ethos."

A36. Kratochvil, Alexander. "Geopoetic models in postmodern Ukrainian and Czech prose." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.1 (Summer 2007): 63-77.

The author defines geopoetics as "the analysis of the complex relations of literature and geo-referenced space, particularly, of the relations between discursive and aesthetic procedures and cultural projections of space." His analysis focuses on the works of Ukrainian writers Iurii Andrukhovych and Serhii Zhadan and the Czech writers Milan Kundera and Jáchym Topol.

A37. Liber, George O. "Till death do you part: Varvara Krylova, Yuliya Solntseva and Oleksandr Dovzhenko's muse." Australian Slavonic and East European Studies. 14. 1-2 (2000): 75-97.

About Dovzhenko's relationships with Varvara Krylova, Tansiya Markenovna, Elena Chernova and Iuliia Solntseva. Two of these women - Varvara Semenivna Krylova (died 1959) and Iuliia Ippolitovna Solntseva (born 1901) - became Dovzhenko's wives and played a major role in his life. For Dovzhenko, according to Liber, "Krylova represented first love, Ukraine, innocence and fertility, but she also stood for illness, deformity and loss..." Solntseva for Dovzhenko, says Liber, "represented Russia, the film-makers's vocation and greater security." Solntseva also insured Dovzhenko's legacy. "She organized, edited and contributed to several volumes of Dovzhenko's memoirs, published his works, and spearheaded the commemoration of the seventieth (1964), eightieth and ninetieth anniversaries of his birth," says Liber.

A38. "Literature." in Culture and Customs of Ukraine / Adriana Helbig, Oksana Buranbaeva, and Vanja Mladineo. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press [©2009]. 127-146. Biblio. notes: 145-146, 184-185. (Culture and customs of Europe).

Chapter 8 in a popular illustrated book discussing various aspects of Ukrainian culture, such as religion, language, gender, education, customs, holidays, cuisine, media, music, theater and cinema. The chapter on literature provides a historical survey from the eleventh century through the 1990's with brief subchapters on the periods of renaissance and reformation, the baroque, classicism, romanticism, realism, modernism, the Soviet era and independence. One or more paragraphs are devoted to concise characterizations of such writers as Kotliarevs'kyi, Shevchenko, P. Kulish, Marko Vovchok, Ivan Nechui-Levyts'kyi, Panas Myrnyi, , Ivan Franko, M. Kotsiubyns'kyi, A. Kryms'kyi, O. Oles, Lesia Ukrainka, Olha Kobylians'ka, V. Stefanyk, V. Vynnychenko, Tychyna, Khvyl'ovyi, M. Kulish, the poets of the 60's and the Bu-Ba-Bu authors, as well as Oksana Zabuzhko, Lysheha and Vynnychuk. Recent titles in the "Culture and customs of Europe" series cover Spain, Germany, Italy, the Baltic States, Ireland, Czech Republic and Slovakia.

A39. Markus, Vasyl. "A note on the political dimensions of Honchar's Sobor." Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 36-39.

Markus discusses the political ideas in the novel Sobor, such as questions of national identity and freedom, love of one's native land, interest and reverence for its history, critical exposure of human aberrations and bureaucratic shortcomings, as well as the hostile political response of the Soviet regime to Honchar's novel. This article appears in an issue dedicated to Oles'Honchar (guest editor: Kateryna Schray). (cf. A73).

A40. Melnitchenko, Eugene. "Ivan Kotliarevsky - father of Ukrainian literary renaissance" / Eugene Melnitchenko, Helena Lysyj Melnitchenko. Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 311-316.

The authors call Kotliarevs'kyi "the father of Ukrainian intellectuals" and "the father of Ukrainian theatre". The article provides some biographical data and some historical background, as well as an examination of Eneida and Natalka Poltavka. Kotliarevsky's literary works, say the authors, "had a profound effect on the rebirth of Ukrainian consciousness and literature, led to a Ukrainian national reawakening, and encouraged other Ukrainian intellectuals to challenge the Russian view of "Little Russians".

A41. Naydan, Michael M. "In memoriam: John Fizer, 1925-2007." Slavic and East European Journal. 52.2 (Summer 2008): 271-273. illus.

A tribute by a former student to a mentor who is characterized as a "brilliant thinker, writer and a superbly well read scholar in the areas of philosophy and literary criticism". Illustrated with a group photo depicting John Fizer with his wife Mary and Lada Kolomiyets.

A42. Naydan, Michael M. "Teaching post-independence Ukrainian culture in Western cultural space." NewsNet (News of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies). 43.2 (March 2003): 7-8, 10-12.

Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the Pennsylvania State University discusses his own experiences in teaching a course of Ukrainian Culture and Civilization at Penn State as well as the current availability of materials in print and on the internet for such a course. Naydan's special focus is on English translations of contemporary Ukrainian literature.

A43. Naydan, Michael M. "Two musical conceptions of the revolution: Aleksandr Blok's Dvenadtsat and Pavlo Tychyna's Zamist sonetiv i oktav." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 93-106.

In comparing the long poem Dvenadtsat of the Russian poet Aleksandr Blok with Pavlo Tychyna's poetic cycle Zamist' sonetiv i oktav, Michael Naydan focuses primarily on such features as "polyphonic structure, the technique of montage in their organization, the song as a structural device, and the elusive symbolist 'spirit of music'." This article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk and guest edited by Roman Senkus. (cf. A75).

A44. Naydan, Michael M. "Ukrainian avant-garde poetry today: Bu-Ba-Bu and others." Slavic and East European Journal. 50.3 (Fall 2006): 452-468. illus.. biblio. 467-468. Ukrainian summary: 468.

"The Bu-Ba-Bu generation of writers" says Naydan, "particularly focused on creating a new sense of literary identity by breaking with the traditional icons of the Ukrainian past, by, in fact, playfully mocking them, and by focusing on aesthetic freedom as their primary concern". The younger writers focused on a new freer poetic language "that broke both Soviet and nationalistic taboos" and introduced a "spirit of Rabelaisian carnival". Naydan quotes a number of poetic texts in both the original and his own English translations, i.e. "A drum-tympanum (Paint a BABE naked BLUE)" by Viktor Neborak, "Love (Love Oklahoma! At night and at suppper)" by Oleksandr Irvanets', "Jamaica the Cossack (oh how many tough miracles are out there my stallion my brother)" by Iurii Andrukhovych (tr. by Vitaly Chernetsky); "Self-portrait in a frying pan (I bend over a frying pan)" and "A dream (with Antonych at the head of the bed) (they jeered at me) by Nazar Honchar. Naydan's article is illustrated with a caricature of Iurii Andrukhovych and another b/w illustration. The essay is part of a special forum entitled: "Mirrors, windows and maps: the topology of cultural identification in contemporary Ukrainian literature" (guest editor: Larissa Onyshkevych). (cf. A95).

A45. Naydan, Michael M. "Ukrainian literary identity today: The legacy of the Bu-Ba-Bu generation after the Orange Revolution". World Literature Today. 79. 3-4 (September-December 2005): 24-27. illus., biblio.

The so called "Orange Revolution" connected with the presidential elections in Ukraine in the late 2004, in Naydan's view, provides an assurance that the cultural future of Ukraine will have "a clear Western orientation". The seeds of that democratic revolution and the Western tilt, according to Naydan, "have been planted nearly two decades earlier during the last years of the Soviet Union by many of the innovative Ukrainian makers of culture" and "the main driving force behind innovation in Ukrainian literature unquestionably has been the literary performance group Bu-Ba-Bu..." Naydan discusses the rise to fame of the three Bu-Ba-Bu writers: Iurii Andrukhovych, Viktor Neborak and Oleksandr Irvanets' who led the rebellion against "the barrenness of socialist realism imposed on them by the all-controlling Soviet state, as well as against the kind of overt nationalism embraced by their immediate Ukrainian literary predecessors, the Poets of the Sixties". The Bu-Ba-Bu group (whose name is derived from Ukrainian terms for buffoonery, farce and burlesque) used irreverent humor and irony as their weapons and attempted to break down all kinds of traditional taboos in traditional Ukrainian literature, especially the linguistic and the sexual ones. Naydan compares the Bu-Ba-Bu group, which fused literary and visual arts with music and performance, to the American Beats of the 1950's and 1960's. While the focus of the paper is on the three Bu-Ba-Bu writers, Naydan discusses briefly also the work of Oksana Zabuzhko the writer and Iurko Koch, the graphic artist. The article is illustrated with a group photo of Irvanets, Andrukhovych and Neborak.

A46. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "Characters revealing issues of identity: in terms of history, nation, religion, and gender in post-Soviet Ukrainian drama". Society in Transition: Social Change in Ukraine in Western Perspectives. Ed. by Wsevolod W. Isajiw. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press, [2003]. 327-345. Notes: 340-342.

"Although most Ukrainian theaters now prefer to stage only well-established plays, since 1991 many new playwrights either follow a superficial 'postmodern' style full of cynicism, sarcasm, carnivalization, and intertextuality while baring the human soul, or have joined the more introspective trend of the 'Ukrainian alternative theater'". Onyshkevych discusses 60 plays written in the 1991-1999 period. These plays, according to Onyshkevych, "expose many aspects and issues of individual identification in terms of self-expression, historical and national consciousness, ethnicity, Europeanness, gender, or religion. They provide a slice of contemporary life in Ukraine..." Onyshkevych's article is accompanied by a supplemental table (p.343-345) that identifies the plays by author, title, source of publication and place and year of each playwright's birth.

A47. Onyshkevych, Larissa. " Cultural perceptions, mirror images, and Western identification in new Ukrainian drama" / Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych. Slavic and East European Journal. 50.3 (Fall 2006): 409-433. Biblio. 430-433. Ukrainian summary: 433.

An examination of how "national or ethnic stereotypes and symbols manifest themselves in new Ukrainian drama", based on a study of some 120 post 1990 plays written in Ukrainian. Current Ukrainian drama, according to Onyshkevych, "does not feature earlier Soviet-era negative stereotypes, the xenophobia toward the West... or toward's Ukraine's many ethnicities..." Now we find mostly a rather frank demonstration of casual personal acceptance or non-acceptance of individuals based on their own merit". In contemporary Ukrainian plays, says Onyshkevych, "there are more references to well-known Western individuals than to Russian or Soviet ones" and Ukrainian protagonists are not usually depicted as victims or glorified, but "are often criticized more harshly than non-Ukrainians". Among the writers discussed, Onyshkevych singles out for special attention Valerii Shevchuk, Olena Klymenko, Les' Podervianskyi, Bohdan Zholdak, Oleksandr Irvanets', Neda Nezhdana. The essay is part of a special forum entitled: "Mirrors, windows and maps: the topology of cultural identification in contemporary Ukrainian literature" (guest editor: Larissa Onyshkevych). (cf. A95).

A48. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "The problem of the definitive literary text and political censorship." Perspectives on modern Central and East European literature: Quests for identity. / Larissa M.L.Z. Onyshkevych. Selected papers from the Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies. Ed. by Todd Patrick Armstrong. [Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York]: Palgrave [©2001]. 25-37. Notes: 34-37.

Self-sensorship, "when authors, under duress, either independently or with the aid of editors" make deletions, insertions or other changes into their literary texts - a practice well known under Soviet and Nazi rule - presents a dilemma for literary scholars. "Which variant should then be considered the definitive text?" Onyshkevych discusses this problem in general and on the basis of a specific example: the play Patetychna sonata by Mykola Kulish. In the subsequent variants of the play written to satisfy the censor, says Onyshkevych, "not only are the endings different, showing the opposing sides as victors, the protagonists' characters and integrity are different, too, creating almost a new play, and creating confusion regarding the play's appreciation and reception. In such situations the ontology of the text is extremely difficult to unravel." One solution suggested by Onyshkevych in this particular case is to search for "the unity of archetypal myths and imagery, or the parallelism with a musical composition", i.e. the Beethoven sonata. The Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies was held in Warsaw , 6-11 August 1995. A bio-bibliographical note about the author appears on p. xvi.

A49. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "Tradition and innovation in twentieth -century Ukrainian verse drama." / Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych. Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 139-157.

Drama written in verse, says Onyshkevych "relies heavily on language - its diction, poetry, imagery, and emotional intensity" and is usually "not suitable for the stage owing to the lack of verisimilitude and its limited dramatic action." Onyshkevych provides a chronological survey of Ukrainian verse drama from 1900 to 1990's and pays special attention to what she considers "verse dramas created by outstanding poets", namely those by Ivan Kocherha, Leonid Mosendz, Iurii Lypa, Ivan Drach, Lina Kostenko and Vira Vovk. This article appears in an issue dedicated to Jaroslav Rozumnyj (guest editor: Myroslav Shkandrij). (cf. A77).

A50. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "Ukrainian drama 1930-2004 and the European Zeitgeist."

ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 301.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. Ukrainian playwrights, such as Mykola Kulish, Ihor Kostets'kyi and Ilarion Cholhan "spoke with the same literary language as their better-known Western European colleages", says Onyshkevych, as they dealt with philosophical tenets such as existentialism and utilized Western cultural symbols and literary devices. Contemporary playwrights, such as Valerii Shevchuk, reflect many aspects typical of a post-colonial literature; some younger writers turn to post-modernism.

A51. Patrylak, Stephen. "Two notes on the reception of Oles' Honchar's works in the English-speaking world." Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 40-49.

Patrylak reports on his survey of the 1240 members of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies - a survey designed to test the respondents' knowledge of Ukrainian writer Oles' Honchar and his contribution to literature. Patrylak's conclusions are based on the 193 responses he received. He also comments on the quality of Honchar's translations into English. This article appears in an issue dedicated to Oles ' Honchar (guest editor: Kateryna Schray). (cf. A73).

A52. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Diary, autobiography and autobiographical fiction: Reading Ol'ha Kobylians'ka." New Zealand Slavonic Journal. 2000. 43-58.

This paper was delivered originally at the International Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Slavists Association held from 3-4 February 2000 at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. The topic of the conference was "Life-writing (Auto/Biography) in Slavic Cultures". Pavlyshyn examines Kobylians'ka's early novel Liudyna (written in 1886 and published after revisions in 1894) in the light of the writer's diary kept between 1883 and 1891, and her autobiographies or autobiographical notes from the years 1898, 1903, 1921-22 and 1927. "Some of the intentional meanings in the novel", says Pavlyshyn, "bear a clear relationship to the topical debates of the period. The diary contains all the elements which, in the novel, are organized so as to generate these meanings: physical desire for biologically strong, even animal-like men; a different kind of psycho-sexual desire, heightened by the excitements of intellectual exchange, for men of culture; a suspicion that intense forms of the latter may be symptoms of nervous abnormality; and the thesis that humankind is divided into a philistine rabble and a sensitive elite. These motifs are as central to an interpretation of both texts as is the issue of feminism which has dominated interpretations of the novel in the past".

A53. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Demystifying high culture? 'Young' Ukrainian poetry and prose in the 1990's." Perspectives on modern Central and East European literature: Quests for identity. Selected papers from the Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies. Ed. by Todd Patrick Armstrong. [Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire; New York]: Palgrave [©2001]. 10-24. Notes: 22-24.

Pavlyshyn examines the views on "the function of literature in society" held by various literary groups in the post-USSR Ukraine in an attempt to determine "the extent to which they may be regarded as 'post-colonial'." The term 'post-colonial', as used here by Pavlyshyn, "applies to those entities in culture which recognise the real and implicit violence of the colonial, on the one hand, and the reactive and limited quality of the anti-colonial, on the other" while identifiying with neither one of them. In this context, Pavlyshyn discusses the work of young Ukrainian writers, such as the Bu-Ba-Bu Group (Iurii Andrukhovych, Oleksandr Irvanets, Viktor Neborak), Luhosad (Ivan Luchuk, Nazar Honchar, Roman Sadlovs'kyi), Propala hramota (Semen Lybon', Iurko Pozaiak, Viktor Nedostup), Nova deheneratsiia (Ivan Andrusiak, Stepan Protsiuk, Ivan Tsyperdiuk), three new periodicals: Avzhezh, Chetver and PostPostup, the writers Iurii Vynnychuk, Volodymyr Tsybulko, Bohdan Zholdak, Viacheslav Medvid, Ievhen Pashkovskyi, Oles' Ulianenko and the Creative Association 500. "The breaking of tabus, the challenges to aesthetic conventions, the deliberately scandalous use of obscenity, the tendency toward self-irony and parody and obscurity testify to the participation of these young Ukrainian writers in a global trend of post-modernism." syas Pavlyshyn. In some of this writing, however, in Pavlyshyn"s view, there is "an irreducible echo of the colonial inferiority complex that requires constant measurement of the ex-colonial self against outside standards..." Writers such as Pashkovskyi and Medvid "aspire to aesthetic distinction through their style", but they "are the very model of contemporary anti-colonialism", and theirs is "a literature of opposition". "The advocates of high national culture, serious and severe, then, are not post-colonial", concludes Pavlyshyn. The Fifth World Congress of Central and East European Studies was held in Warsaw , 6-11 August 1995. A bio-bibliographical note about the author appears on p. xvii.

A54. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Invocations of Central Europe: the rhetoric of geography in Ukrainian literature at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries." ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 308.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. The paper deals with "the Central Europe of the Ukrainian literary imagination" represented by its most ardent advocate, Iurii Adrukhovych.

A55. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Rereading the classics in a post-Soviet world: the case of Olha Kobylianska." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 33-50.

Marko Pavlyshyn's essay on Ol'ha Kobylians'ka originated as the first Danylo Husar Struk Memorial Lecture at the University of Toronto on 2 June 2000. Pavlyshyn proposes a reappraisal of Kobylianska's work and a reassessment of her place in Ukrainian literary history. "Today we might be indifferent to the reasons for much of the praise that was heaped upon Kobylianska in the past - the beauty of her nature descriptions that so moved many critics early in the twentieth century, for example. But we might not be indifferent to the passion, movement, and mystery of some of her works, nor to the questions they ask about human fate and the special fate of women", says Pavlyshyn. He stresses the importance of

feminist approches to Kobylianska's works - but these, in his view, are still "interpretations waiting to be made." This article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A56. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "The Soviet Ukrainian whimsical novel." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 103-119.

Whimsical novels became fashionable in Soviet Ukrainian literature in the 1970's. They were a departure from the established socialist realism mode and attracted considerable attention. According to Pavlyshyn, their main components were Ukrainian ethnographic detail, a rural setting, historical references, fantastic and supernatural motifs, eccentric style, erotic allusions and humor. The whimsical novel, says Pavlyshyn, "defined national difference in terms of quaintness, outdatedness, and rustic provinciality" - qualities that were "the opposites of modernity". Some whimsical novels, says Pavlyshyn, "did challenge the dominant culturally evaluative tendency of this subgenre". He selects as examples Pavlo Zahrebel'nyi's novel Levyne sertse and Valerii Shevchuk's Dim na hori and analyses them in considerable detail. They are, in Pavlyshyn's view, parodies on and polemic with the whimsical novel genre. This essay is part of the Jaroslav Rozumnyj festschrift (guest editor: Myroslav Shkandrij). (cf. A77).

A57. Pylypiuk, Natalia. "Hryhorii Skovoroda's rejection of panegyrical amplificatio." ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 330.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. Pylypiuk analyses Skovoroda's poetry collection, especially three poems, Songs 25, 26 and 27, generated by public occasions involving appointments or elevations of bishops H. Iakubovych, I. Kozlovych and I. Mytkevych.

A58. Pylypiuk, Natalia. "Meditations on stained glass: Kholodny, Kalynets, Stus." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 195-214.

Ihor Kalynets's poem "Vitrazhi (Upaly z arkovykh tsilyn)", written possibly under the influence of stained glass windows in a Lviv church created by the painter Petro Kholodnyi, Sr. (1876-1930) is compared by Natalia Pylypiuk with the poem "Toi obraz, shcho v vidslonakh merekhtyt'" by Vasyl Stus. Both poems, according to Pylypiuk, "validate Ukrainian culture by references to its historical past". She considers it remarkable that both poets chose for their meditations "an art form associated more closely with Western rather than Eastern Christianity." Both poems are quoted in the original Ukrainian with literal translations in footnotes. [Kalynets' 33 lines, Stus: 14 lines]. Pylypiuk's essay appears in the issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A59. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Alternative history, science fiction and nationalism in V. Kozhelianko's novels." ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 337-338.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. Vasyl Kozhelianko, the author of Defiliada v Moskvi and other novels, "blends history (real and made-up) with science fiction in order to parody many faces of nationalism, regardless of its origin", says Rewakowicz. "This peculiar amalgam of history, science fiction and nationalism, with strong allusions to the current political situation in Ukraine, is Kozhelianko's trademark and uniquely his in the context of contemporary Ukrainian literature."

A60. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Introducing Ukrainian émigré poets of the New York Group." Toronto Slavic Annual. 1 (2003): 34-36; poetry: 36-48; notes on the poets and translators: 48-50.

The New York Group of Ukrainian poets, according to Rewakowicz, consisted originally of seven members: Bohdan Boichuk, Iurii Tarnavs'kyi, Zhenia Vasyl'kivs'ka, Bohdan Rubchak, Patrytsiia Kylyna, Emma Andiievs'ka and Vira Vovk. A decade later the original seven were joined by what the author calls "fellow travelers": Iurii Kolomyiets, Oleh Koverko, Marko Tsarynnyk, Roman Baboval and the author herself. What the New York Group members have in common, according to Rewakowicz, are "the same inclination toward formal experimentation", "universally poetic themes of love and death", "motifs of the erotic, the city, alienation and unease", "a highly subjective, intellectual, often playful and ironic" mode of expression. Rewakowicz provides a selection of two or three poems for each poet in the original Ukrainian and one in an English translation, and gives a brief characterization of each author.

A61. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "(Post)modernist masks: the aesthetics of play in the poetry of Emma Andievska and Bohdan Rubchak." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 183-193.

The author attempts to trace the internal evolution of Emma Andiievs'ka and Bohdan Rubchak "in their treatment of the play-element in their poetry and "to pinpoint the shifts in their poetic texts from modernism to postmodernism." Quotations are in the original Ukrainian with English literal translations in footnotes [i.e Rubchak: "V kimnati sta liuster (Chasto ia zodiahaiu pyshni shaty. Vony)" (8 lines); "Virsham i snam ne vir" (4 lines); "Takoho khliba treba b zamisyty" (8 lines); "Ars poetica (Shukaty lysh sut', lysh hole buttia shukaty - sut' buttia" (4 lines); Andiievs'ka: "Mov siti, babku vytiahnuvshy z del't" (8 lines); "Butiia nema, sichka - monoloh" (4 lines)]. This article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A62. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Ukraine's quest for identity." Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 382-387.

A review article of a special issue of the Slavic and East European Journal (50.3 (Fall 2006) entitled "Forum: Contemporary Ukrainian literature and national identity", edited by Larissa M.L.Z. Onyshkevych. (cf. A95).

A63. Romanets, Maryna. "Erotic assemblages: field research, palimpsests, and what lies beneath." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 273-285.

As examples of "a literary vogue for 'erotomaniac' fiction", Maryna Romanets selects three works for a comparative cross-gender analysis, namely Poliovi doslidzhennia z ukrainskoho seksu by Oksana Zabuzhko, the short novel Votstsek by Iurii Izdryk and a prose collection Te, shcho na spodi by Iurii Pokal'chuk. She analyzes Zabuzhko's "liberated sexuality" and "spectralized selves" in Izdryk's novel, but considers Pokalchuk's stories of pseudo-erotica a typical example of pornographic literature, "no more than an adolescent fantasy of sexuality and sexual liberation." This article is part of the special issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A64. Rozumnyj, Jaroslav. "My soul agonizes over your future, my people..." Trans. by Ihor Zielyk and Serhiy Zhykharev. Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 266-270.

Rozumnyj focuses on Franko's ideals of "the whole man" and the interrelationships between a man, as an individual and as a leader of his people. With these ideas in mind, he analyzes three of Franko's long poems: "Smert' Kaina", "Ivan Vyshens'kyi" and "Moisei". This article appears in an issue dedicated to Ivan Franko and edited by Leonid Rudnytzky. (cf. A67).

A65. Rudnytzky, Leonid. "A note on the Holodomor in imaginative literature." Ukrainian Quarterly. 64.1-2 (Spring-Winter 2008): 6-16.

About Ukrainian famine of 1932-33 as reflected in poetry and fiction. Singled out for special attention are Oleksa Hai-Holovko, Andrii Lehit, Mykola Rudenko and Vasyl Barka. Excerpts from Hai-Holovko's and Lehit's poetry are quoted in the author's own translation, while Rudenko's selections are translations by Roman Tatchyn.

A66. Rudnytzky, Leonid. "Oles' Honchar - selected documents." Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 79-86.

Leonid Rudnytzky provides excerpts from the diaries of Honchar and P. Shelest and the text of his own letter nominating Honchar for the Nobel Prize in Literature sent to the chairman of the Nobel Committee Lars Gyllensten in October 1989. This material is part of an issue dedicated to Oles' Honchar (guest editor: Kateryna Schray). (cf. A73).

A67. Rudnytzky, Leonid. "The sesquicentennial anniversary of Ukraine's man of letters extraordinaire: Ivan Franko (1856-1916)." Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 261-265.

Part of this issue of Ukrainian Quarterly is dedicated to Ivan Franko on the occasion of his 150th birth anniversary. Rudnytzky, the associate editor, provides an introduction, surveying the studies published on this occasion in Ukraine and expressing a hope that Franko and his work would "merit wider international recognition". The articles on Franko included in this issue are by Jaroslav Rozumnyj (cf. A64), Kateryna Schray (cf. A71), Nicholas Rudnytzky (cf. A69), Ivan Z. Holowinsky (cf. A20), and Jaroslaw Hryckowian (cf. A22).

A68. Rudnytzky, Leonid. "The undiscovered realm: notes on the nature of Ukrainian literature." Ukraine at a Crossroads. Nicolas Hayoz, Andrej N. Lushnycky, eds. Bern, New York: Peter Lang [©2005]. (Interdisciplinary studies on Central and Eastern Europe, vol.1). 215-232. Bibliography: 231-232.

A variant of this article was published previously in the "Festschrift fr Prof. Dr. Antonin Mest'an zu seinem 70. Geburtstag", Germanoslavica: Zeitschrift fr germano-slawische Studien. (Prag) VII (XII), no.1, pp.195-208.

Throughout history, says Rudnytzky, literature "has been the mainstay of the Ukrainian national identity". It is, however, "virtually unknown outside the Slavic literary realm". In Rudnytzky's view, four characteristics of Ukrainian literature are resposible for its marginalized position in world literature: 1/ Ukrainian literature is a literature between two worlds, with a dialectic tension between East and West; 2/ it is a literature with a mission, littérature engagée, serving an idea or an ideology; 3/ it is characterized by intense lyrical emotionality and represented primarily by poetry which is difficult to translate: and 4/ it is deeply religious and even in a secular age , according to Rudnytzky, it "still reflects the Christian ethos". Brief poetry and prose quotations are used as illustrations.

A69. Rudnytzky, Nicholas. "Ivan Franko and Lazar Baranovych: a case of certitude in ambiguity." Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 289-297.

Nicholas Rudnytzky writes about Franko's scholarly interest in Lazar Baranovych, a prominent 17th century Ukrainian church figure and writer, and claims that Franko's assessment of Baranovych was vacillating, inconsistent and contradictory. This article appears in an issue dedicated to Ivan Franko and edited by Leonid Rudnytzky. (cf. A67).

A70. Scherer, Stephen P. "Skovoroda by the numbers: numbers and geometric figures in the philosophy of Hryhorij Skovoroda (1722-94)." East European Quarterly. 42.4 (Winter 2008): 435-450.

The author attempts to analyze "Skovoroda's predisposition to employ numbers and geometric figures in his work and, as a result, to establish the crucial role they played in his thinking."The running numbering on every page of this particular issue says "East European Quarterly, XLII vol.4 (January 2009)" [sic].

A71. Schray, Kateryna. "Apocrypha and folklore in Ivan Franko's 'Legenda pro Pilata'." Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.3-4 (Fall-Winter 2006): 271-288.

Schray analyzes in detail sonnets 36, 37 and 38 in Franko's cycle of prison sonnets ("Tiuremni sonety"). Together they form the so called "Legenda pro Pylata", i.e. they deal with the story of Pontius Pilate, the Roman procurator who condemned Jesus Christ. The author surveys other literary treatments of the theme and provides insights as to the sources used by Franko. The three sonnets are quoted in full in Percival Cundy's translation. ("So Pilate yielded Christ to their demands" (14 lines); "Thus God marked Pilate with eternal stain" (14 lines);" Then someone dragged his corpse off by the feet" (14 lines). This article appears in an issue dedicated to Ivan Franko and edited by Leonid Rudnytzky. (cf. A67).

A72. Schray, Kateryna. "Builders and destroyers: theoretical approaches to Oles' Honchar's Cathedral in the American classroom." / Kateryna A.R. Schray. Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 50-78.

Schray's article is intended as a practical guide for instructors of American colleges who would like to include Honchar's novel Sobor (in the English translation) into the syllabi of their specialty courses on Slavic literature. She discusses major themes and ideas presented in the novel, as well as several possible theoretical approaches, such as readings from the new critical, structuralist, historical or feminist perspectives. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Oles' Honchar and guest edited by Kateryna Schray herself. (cf. A73).

A73. Schray, Kateryna. "Guest editor's introduction: Reading, interpreting, and teaching the stories of Oles' Honchar." / Kateryna A.R. Schray. Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 6-8.

Kateryna Schray acted as a guest editor for this special issue of Ukrainian Quarterly dedicated to the writer Oles' Honchar on the fifth anniversary of his death. She provides brief characterizations of the articles included, some of which originated at scholarly conferences held previously. This special issue contains articles on Honchar by Maxim Tarnawsky (cf. A90), Danylo Husar Struk (cf. A88), Vasyl Markus (cf. A39), Stephen Patrylak (cf. A51), Kateryna Schray (cf. A72) and Leonid Rudnytzky (cf. A66) plus a brief introductory note by Ukrainian Quarterly's general editor Wolodymyr Stojko (cf. A87).

A74. Segel, Harold B. "Ukrainian literature fields a major writer." in his The Columbia Literary History of Eastern Europe since 1945. New York: Columbia University Press [©2008]. 327-329.

Chapter 11 with the general title "The Postcolonial literary scene in Eastern Europe since 1991". According to Segel, "the brightest star of contemporary post-Soviet Ukrainian literature is the poet and prose-fiction writer Oksana Zabuzhko." He discusses Zabuzhko's work in some detail, covering her novel, short stories, poetry and essays. "Field studies on Ukrainian sex" he considers Zabuzhko's "best work to date" in which the author's "resentment over Ukrainians' submissiveness to the Soviets analogizes with her resentment over a woman's submissiveness to men..." In his view, Zabuzhko's "unequivocal feminist perspective" is also visible in her poetry. Segal considers "Klitemnestra" "one of her best poems" and quotes 24 lines of the poem (beginning with the line "Agamemnon's coming") in an unattributed English translation. Zabuzhko's essays, says Segel, "establish her as a writer of high intelligence, broad learning and a sophisticated ability to tie together culture and politics."

A75. Senkus, Roman . "Introduction." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 1-8.

Senkus, the guest editor of this Special issue in memory of Danylo Husar Struk, provides a biography of D.H. Struk (1940-1999), personal reminiscenses about him, and brief characterizations of the contents of this posthumous memorial issue. The issue contains articles by Roman Koropeckyj (cf. A31), Marko Pavlyshyn (cf. A55), Jars Balan (cf. A8), Myroslav Shkandrij (cf. A79), Oleh S. Ilnytzkyj (cf. A27), Michael M. Naydan (cf. A43), Marko Robert Stech (cf. A84), Lidia Stefanowska (cf. A86), Maxim Tarnawsky (cf. A91), Walter Smyrniw (cf. A81), Maria G. Rewakowicz (cf. A61), Natalia Pylypiuk (cf. A58), Vitaly Chernetsky (cf. A10), Mark Andryczyk (cf. A3), Maryna Romanets (cf. A63), Halyna Koscharsky (cf. A33), as well as an unsigned select bibliography of D.H. Struk's writings. In addition, this memorial issue contains also two additional literary articles in Ukrainian: one by Iurii Andrukhovych on the poet Bohdan-Ihor Antonych, the other by Tamara Hundorova on the literary group Bu-Ba-Bu.

A76. Shevelov, George Y. "Nikolai Ge: an artist in a different context. Depictions: Slavic Studies in the Narrative and Visual Arts in Honor of William E. Harkins. Ed. by Douglas M. Greenfield. [Dana Point, CA.: Ardis, ©2000] (Studies of the Harriman Institute, Columbia University). 172-192. illus.

In this article about the Russian religious painter Nikolai Nikolaevich Ge (d. 1894) pages 183-189 are devoted to the affinities between Ge's late paintings and the late poems of Taras Shevchenko.

A77. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "Introduction." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 1-20.

An introduction by the guest editor of this special issue of the Journal entitled Creating a modern Ukrainian cultural space: essays in honour of Jaroslav Rozumnyj. The introduction provides a scholarly silhouette of Jaroslav Rozumnyj, professor of Ukrainian literature at the University of Manitoba. This special issue contains articles by Oleh S. Ilnytzkyj (cf. A28), Roman Weretelnyk (cf. A93), Maxim Tarnawsky (cf. A92), Vira Aheieva (cf. A1), Myroslav Shkandrij (cf. A80), Robert Karpiak (cf. A30), Marko Pavlyshyn (cf. A56), Walter Smyrniw (cf. A82), Halyna Koscharsky (cf. A34), Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych (cf. A49), and Nevenka Koscevic (cf. A32). as well as book reviews. The Rozumnyj festschrift was issued also separately as a book by the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.

A78. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "The Jewish voice in Ukrainian literature." Ukrainian Quarterly. 62.1 (Spring 2006): 69-94.

The Jewish voice is defined as "one that expresses explicitly Jewish concerns and articulates the problems of a Jewish-Ukrainian identity". Shkandrij examines the work of three Ukrainian writers: Hrytsko Kernerenko, Leonid Pervomais'kyi and Moisei Fishbein. Kernerenko, known also as Hirsch Kerner, was born in 1863 and according to Shkandrij, "appears to have been the first Jewish author to write in Ukrainian." He was the author of four books of poetry, a short story and a play and had his works published in Ukrainian periodicals and anthologies. "Much of Kernerenko's poetry", says Shkandrij, "is about the universal themes of love and loneliness, but he also published civic poetry dealing with Ukraine and the importance of the poet's role." Pervomais'kyi, according to Shkandrij, "is the greatest talent in the large cohort of Jewish writers who entered literature in the twenties, worked alongside Ukrainians and assimilated into Ukrainian life." Pervomais'kyi wrote both prose and poetry and some of his works are discussed and analyzed in greater detail. In Shkandrij's view, Pervomais'kyi's work "captures the complexities and contradictions of the Jewish writer's entanglement with Soviet reality throughout six decades"..."he began as a communist neophyte - but gradually eliminated almost everything 'Soviet' about himself." His best lyric poetry was written at the end of his life and, his novel Dykyi med (published in 1963) is, according to Shkandrij, "one of the best novels of the Soviet period." Moisei Fishbein, born in 1946, is a prominent contemporary Ukrainian poet. He "combines and reconciles the two aspects of his identity", Christian and Old Testament imagery are mixed in his poetry, his Jewishness is combined with his attachment to Ukrainian language and culture. The poet has become "a symbol of pluralism and tolerance in the post-independence period", but his best poetry, says Shkandrij, "rises above contemporary concerns and transports the reader to a realm where a deep peace reigns, where the mind can concentrate on the details of human perception and sensation." The article is interspersed with fragments of poetry, where texts are provided both in the transliterated Ukrainian and in a literal English translation, apparently by the author himself.

A79. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "The politics of high culture: Petro Karmansky's 'Malpiache zerkalo'." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 63-78.

Ukrainian modernist writer Petro Karmans'kyi was invited in 1913 to lecture at a

government school for Ukrainian teachers in Canada. While in Canada he wrote a series of satirical articles under the title "Malpiache zerkalo" for the Ukrainian language newspaper Kanada published in Winnipeg. Shkandrij relates the polemic and political scandal provoked by this publication. Karmanskyi defended bilingual English-Ukrainian schools whose proposed closure by the Liberal Party was a burning issue in the imminent provincial elections. Shkandrij's article is part of the special issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk and guest edited by Roman Senkus. (cf. A75).

A80. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "The rape of civilization: recurrent structure in Myroslav Irchan's prose." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 61-72.

Myroslav Irchan expected and encouraged a Marxist interpretation of his work, but, says Shkandrij, "a careful analysis of his form uncovers complicating messages that to a large degree subvert the stated intention." In his article Shkandrij analyses Irchan's prose, especially such books as Trahediia pershoho travnia (1923), Filmy revolutsii (1923), Karpats'ka nich (1924), V burianakh (1925), Proty smerty (1927) and individual stories such as "Bat'ko", "Moloda maty", "Smert' Asuara", "Kanads'ka Ukraina", "Bila malpa", "Nadii", "Apostoly", "Vudzhena ryba", "Avtoportret", "Kniazhna", "Zmovnyky", "Prysmerky mynuloho", "Tse bulo tak davno", "Taina nochi", "V poloni morskoi ordy". This article is part of the Jaroslav Rozumnyj festschrift with Myroslav Shkandrij himself as guest editor. (cf. A77).

A81. Smyrniw, Walter. "The first space voyages in Ukrainian science fiction." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 173-182.

Soviet critics cite Volodymyr Vladko (1900-1974) as the first science fiction writer in Ukrainian literature. His novel Arhonavty vsesvitu first published in 1935 deals with an interplanetary journey. According to Walter Smyrniv, however, priority in that field should be given to Myroslav Kapii, author of Kraina blakytnykh orkhidei published in 1932. Kapii's novel, says Smyrniw, was excluded from the accepted repertoire of Ukrainian science fiction because of ideological reasons. Kapii's novel was set in the 21st century, in an independent Ukrainian state ruled by a hetman, and included references to Ukrainian nationalist heroes, such as Ivan Mazepa and Symon Petliura. That made it unacceptable to Soviet critics. Smyrniw claims that Kapii's novel is based in part on Francis Bacon's utopian novel The New Atlantis (1627) and that in Kapii's work the journey to Mars is prompted by a divine inspiration. Smyrniw compares Kapii's and Vladko's novels - the latter being a fictionalized account of a Soviet expedition on route to the planet Venus. This article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A82. Smyrniw, Walter. "The function of time in Lina Kostenko's dramatic works." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 121-129.

Walter Smyrniw examines Lina Kostenko's "preoccupation with the phenomenon of time" in her collections Nepovtornist and Sad netanuchykh skulptur. "By way of striking metaphors and direct allusions she touches on several temporal notions, including cyclical time, linear time, the bidirectional time flow, and space-time continuum", says Smyrniw. This article is part of the Jaroslav Rozumnyj festschrift, guest edited by Myroslav Shkandrij.(cf. A77).

A83. Sobol, Walentyna. "Yuriy Lypa in the intellectual life of the Second Republic of Poland. Ukrainian Quarterly. 61.4 (Winter 2005): 392-398.

Iurii Lypa (1900-1944) was a poet, prose writer, playwright as well as a physician, archeologist and scholar. This bio-bibliographical article provides not only basic data about Lypa's literary activity, his associations with literary groups Mytusa and Tank, his poetry collections and literary essays, but also about his medical monographs (written in Polish), his vision of Ukrainian history and Ukraine's struggle for independence expressed in political treatises, and his role as the founder of Ukrainian Black Sea Institute, a scholarly center founded in Warsaw in 1940, focusing on geopolitical, cultural and economic problems of Ukraine.

A84. Stech, Marko Robert. "The concept of personal revolution in Mykola Kulish's early plays." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 107-124.

Stech focuses on two early plays by Mykola Kulish: ""97" and "Komuna v stepakh". Most critics consider these as propaganda plays describing the revolutionary class struggle. Stech, on the contrary, believes that even in these early plays the author was "preoccupied primarily with the subtle psychological motivations of characters for whom the revolutionary conflict reflects a personal struggle for 'a new life'... As a result, the revolution is perceived by these characters as quasi-religious in nature, and Soviet ideology is transformed into popular religion." The motifs and ideas of his early plays are also found in Kulish's masterpieces "Narodnii Malakhii" and "Patetychna sonata", where motivations of the plays' protagonists are "inextricably linked with their quasi-religious quests for self-enlightenment and truth." Quotations from the plays are in the original Ukrainian with English translations given in the footnotes. Stech's article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A85. Stech, Marko Robert. "Kulish and the Devil." Trans. from the Ukrainian by Taras Zakydalsky. Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.1 (Summer 2007): 1-35.

Stech examines two early plays by Mykola Kulish: "Otak zahynuv Huska" and "Khulii Khuryna" He claims that certain aspects of these plays and their reception and interpretation in the 1920's point "to religious and quasi-religious ideas and , in particular, to the question of the devil and the actual existence of metaphysical evil in human society." Stech discusses the influences and affinities between Kulish's plays and the works of Nikolai Gogol, Gogol's interpreter Dmitrii Merezhkovsky, and other Russian writers, such as Mikhail Bulgakov and Ilya Ehrenburg. Mykola Kulish, according to Stech, "more than most of his Russian and Ukrainian contemporaries, exhibited a characteristically Western mentality, worldview and temperament" and had the unrealized potential of becoming "one of the important inspirers of existentialism."

A86. Stefanowska, Lidia. "The poetics of liminality: Bohdan Ihor Antonych in the context of interwar Polish literature." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 137-159.

Lidia Stefanowska discusses Polish influences on the poetry of Bohdan Ihor Antonych, especially of such Polish poets as Kazimierz Wierzyski, Julian Tuwim and Tadeusz Peiper. Excerpts from Antonych's poetry are quoted in the original Ukrainian with literal translations provided in the footnotes. [i.e. "Dlia molodykh plechei lehkyi ie neba v'iuk" (8 lines); "Nabrav povitria v hrudy" (16 lines); "Chervoni kuby muriv, kola zhovtykh ploshch, kvadraty skveriv" (8 lines); "Lopochut' zori na topoliakh" (4 lines); "Stil obrostaie buinym lystiam" (4 lines). The article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk and guest edited by Roman Senkus. (cf. A75).

A87. Stojko, Wolodymyr. "Note from the editor" / W.S. Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 5. port.

In a special issue of the journal dedicated to Oles' Honchar, the editor of Ukrainian Quarterly introduces the guest editor of the issue Kateryna A.R. Schray (cf. A73). He characterizes Honchar as "a writer, who in the era of totalitarian tyranny and national subjugation, found ways to inject into his works both human and national values".

A88. Struk, Danylo Husar. "Oles' Honchar - a postmortem." Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 19-35.

D.H. Struk considers Honchar "the socialist realist writer par excellence". He surveys the critical reception of Honchar's works both in the diaspora and in Ukraine In Struk's view, Honchar's "merit is mostly extra-literary", such as his constant protests against cultural genocide and his "steady interest in the preservation of Ukraine's historic memory." The article appears in an issue dedicated to Oles' Honchar (guest editor: Kateryna Schray). (cf. A73).

A89. Tarnawsky, Maxim. "Borrowed theory, native practice: literary criticism in Ukraine." ICCEES VII World Congress. Europe - Our Common Home? Abstracts. (Berlin, July 25-30, 2005): 423.

An abstract of a paper to be read at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin, in July 2005. The two most prominent features that distinguish contemporary Ukrainian literary scholarship, according to the author, are "the attention to previously taboo subjects" and "a pronounced interest in applying the methods of Western literary scholarship to the fabric of Ukrainian literature."

A90. Tarnawsky, Maxim. "The humanist clay of Honchar's works." Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.1 (Spring 2000): 9-18.

In discussing Honchar's works, Maxim Tarnawsky focuses on the novels Liudyna i zbroia and Sobor. In Honchar's novels, says Tarnawsky, the examples and allusions to "material and intellectual human artifacts from the past" are "important talismans in the iconic world of the author's ideology". Honchar frequently "associates his positive characters with a particularly humanistic set of values"and for him "Humanism is a system of value beyond utilitarian arguments," says Tarnawsky. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Oles' Honchar (guest editor: Kateryna Schray). (cf. A73).

A91. Tarnawsky, Maxim. "Mykhailo Rudnytsky - literary critic." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 27.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2002): 161-172.

Mykhailo Rudnyts'kyi (d. 1975) was a prominent literary critic in Western Ukraine, active especially between the two World Wars. Maxim Tarnawsky analyses Rudnyts'kyi's two major critical books Mizh ideieiu i formoiu (1932) and Vid Myrnoho do Khvylovoho (1936) and finds four basic principles, that characterize Rudnyts'kyi's consistent outlook on culture: judgment, aesthetics, psychology and Europe. Ukrainian literature, says Rudnyts'kyi, must be judged according to general aesthetic criteria to overcome its provincialism and backwardness; "the value of literature should not be tied to its social function", "the quality of a literary work depends not on the nature of the idea... but on the author's ability to translate his idea into form and content."; psychology of the author is important in the work's production, an author should endow his work with an element of his own personality; and finally, according to Rudnyts'kyi, Ukrainian literature should advance through interaction with more mature cultures of Western Enrope. Maxim Tarnawsky takes issue with some of Rudnyts'kyi's views, as well as with the views on Rudnyts'kyi, the critic, by contemporary Ukrainian scholar Mykola Il'nyts'kyi. The article appears in an issue dedicated to Danylo Husar Struk (guest editor: Roman Senkus). (cf. A75).

A92. Tarnawsky, Maxim. "Mykola Ievshan: modernist critic?" Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 33-43.

Mykola Ievshan (Fediushko) has the reputation of being the primary Ukrainian modernist critic. Maxim Tarnawsky takes issue with this view and claims that Ievshan's critical works are "prime examples of the theoretical ambiguity that characterizes Ukrainian modernism" and that Ievshan"by personal inclination and ideological necessity" is "a critic of hybrid, mixed approaches." This article is part of the Jaroslav Rozumnyj festschrift guest edited by Myroslav Shkandrij. (cf. A77).

A93. Weretelnyk, Roman. "On Varvara Repnina's 'Devochka'." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 25.1-2 (Summer-Winter 2000): 19-31.

Princess Varvara Repnina, according to Weretelnyk, wrote an unfinished novel about Shevchenko, a fragment of which she presented to the poet as a short story about her own life. Weretelnyk discusses the relationship between Shevchenko and the princess. This article appears in an issue dedicated to Jaroslav Rozumnyj (guest editor: Myroslav Shkandrij). (cf. A77).

A94. Znayenko, Myroslava Tomorug. "Beauty and sadness in 'A Strange Episode': a few remarks on Vynnychenko's aesthetic consciousness." Depictions: Slavic Studies in the Narrative and Visual Arts in Honor of William E. Harkins. Ed. by Douglas M. Greenfield. [Dana Point, CA.: Ardis, ©2000] (Studies of the Harriman Institute, Columbia University). 92-100. Biblio. notes.

A modified version of a paper delivered originally in Ukrainian at the 3rd International Congress of Ukrainian Studies held in Kharkiv in August 1986. This study is an attempt to explore Volodymyr Vynnychenko's "conception of aesthetic beauty" and to "delineate the parameters of his visual and textual semiotics" on the basis of his short story "Chudnyi epizod". According to the author, Vynnychenko "consciously 'deconstructs' all traditional concepts of 'Being, Goodness, and Truth'. His 'transvaluation of values' is Nietzschean, for to Vynnychenko all ideals, including the ideal of beauty, must represent a synthesis of what has been perceived to be true by intellect and intuition. The ultimate purpose of art is to come as close as possible to this subjective ideal; an ideal which can engage one's entire being, bringing both 'tenderness and joy, and grief and hopelessness' to the heart. To achieve this goal, an artist must follow his inspiration regardless of sacrifice, projecting into it his entire being".

A95. Zubrytska, Maria. "Mirrors, windows and maps: the topology of cultural identification in contemporary Ukrainian literature". Slavic and East European Journal. 50.3 (Fall 2006): 404-408. Biblio.

An introduction to a special forum published in this issue under the title: "Mirrors, windows and maps: the topology of national identity in twentieth century Ukrainian literature", edited by the guest editor Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and consisting of articles by Onyshkevych [cf. A47], Hnatiuk [cf. A19] and Naydan [cf. A44], There are additional non-literary articles by Marko Pavlyshyn (on Ruslana, the singer) and Valerii Polkovsky (on language). Zubrytska describes the primary focus of this forum as "an attempt to consider the socio-political and cultural aspects of the rich and multifaceted trnsformations of national identity in Ukrainian culture" with national literature serving both as "a mirror of reality" in which one sees oneself, and as a window, where one sees the reflections of the world of others.

A96. Andryczyk, Mark. "Kharkiv-Paris-Kharkiv: Yurii Lawrynenko's anthology Rozstriliane vidrodzhennia." Harriman Review. 16.1 (October 2008): 3–8. illus.

The anthology of Ukrainian literature of the 1917–1933 period, compiled and edited by Iurii Lavrynenko, was published in Paris by the Polish Instytut Literacki in 1959. Many of the writers included in this anthology perished in the Stalinist terror (thus the title, which means "Executed renaissance"). Andryczyk examines critically this influential anthology and provides a survey of its reception in contemporary Ukraine.This article is part of the special issue of the Harriman Review, guest edited by Mark Andryczyk, which consists of papers from the symposium entitled "Yurii Lawrynenko: Path and Legacy". The symposium was held at Columbia University on October 25, 2007. For other contributions see Rubchak [A139], Shraga-Davidenko [A143], Stech [A146].

A97. Bennett, Brian P. "Sign languages: Divination and providentialism in the Primary Chronicle of Kievan Rus." Slavonic and East European Review. 83.3 (July 2005): 373–395.

Bennett deals with some inconsistencies and ambivalences in Povist" vremennykh lit. According to the author, "The Primary Chronicle wants to portray the difference between Christianity and "magic", the language of providentialism and that of divination, in starkly opposite terms." The monastic author of Povist vremennykh lit, says Bennett, "would surely balk at the thesis advanced here: namely, that his trud involved a kind of divination akin to that of the volkhvy, albeit on a more rationalized level."

A98. Bodin, Per-Arne. " The end of an empire: On Iurii Andrukhovych's novel Moskoviada." From Sovietology to Postcoloniality: Poland and Ukraine from a Postcolonial Perspective. Ed. by Janusz Korek. [Huddinge]: Södertörn hogskola, 2007. 93–102. Biblio.102.

Analysis of Andrukhovych's novel Moskoviada, whose recurring theme, according to the author, is "the empire and the impending fall of the Soviet empire." The deconstruction of the empire, says Bodin, is accomplished through the narrative, the use of language and alcohol. The novel, however, deconstructs not only the imperial, but also the national discourse: "defense of Ukrainian independence and simultaneous criticism of nationalistic propaganda is a very important feature of the novels of Andrukhovych", says Bodin. The article was presented originally as a paper, which was read at a conference at Södertörn University College in Stockholm that took place on 6–7 October 2005.

A99. Cap, Jean-Pierre. "A poetic requiem for the millions of Ukrainian peasants starved to death by Stalin in 1932–1933." Ukrainian Quarterly. 63.1 (Spring 2007): 79–100.

A detailed examination of the subject matter of Vasyl Barka's novel Zhovtyi kniaz', about the great famine—Holodomor in Ukraine. Cap's discussion of the plot is based on the French translation of Barka's novel, published under the title Le Prince Jaune by Gallimard in Paris in 1981. In Cap's view, Zhovtyi kniaz' is "unquestionably one of the most esthetically enriching and humanizing literary works—inspired by one of the most catastrophic tragedies of the twentieth century." This article is an expanded version of a paper presented at the Ukrainian Conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in June 2004.

A100. Chernetsky, Vitaly. "Ukrainian literature at the end of the millenium: the ten best works of the 1990's." World Literature Today. 76.2 (Spring 2002): 98–101. illus.

Selected for special attention in this essay are Bu-Ba-Bu anthology published in Lviv in 1995, the novels Rekreatsii, Moskoviada and Perverziia by Iurii Andrukhovych, poetry, essays and the novel Pol'ovi doslidzhennia z ukrains'koho seksu by Oksana Zabuzhko, Letters from Kiev and Dyskurs modernizmu v ukrainskii literaturi by Solomiia Pavlychko, the poetry by Oleh Lysheha and Volodymyr Dibrova's Peltse and Pentameron published in English in the USA in 1996. With a brief editorial note about Vitaly Chernetsky and three illustrations: portraits of Andrukhovych and the cover of his novel Recreations published in English in 1998.

A101. Chopyk, Dan B. "G.S. Skovoroda's philosophy of happiness as applied to the teaching-learning process." Ukrainian Quarterly. 58.2–3 (Summer–Fall 2002): 182–184.

According to Skovoroda, "a truly civilized way of life" may be realized through education, which "should help people to find themselves, to know their nature, their abilities and special talents", says Chopyk. "The pupils should be taught various subjects calmly, without undue haste by repetition, which later could transcend into habitual learning." These precepts of Skovoroda's, according to Chopyk, were confirmed by a field-research at the University of Colorado, which proved the effectiveness of slow and repetitive methods in teaching. Hryhorii Skovoroda is referred to throughout this article as G.S. Skovoroda.

A102. Danylenko, Andrii. "Ad memoriam: George Y. Shevelov (December 17, 1908 – April 12, 2002)." Ukrainian Quarterly. 58.2–3 (Summer–Fall 2002): 267–270. port.

An obituary of Iurii Shevelov, professor emeritus of Slavic philology at Columbia University, known also as Ukrainian literary scholar and critic under his pseudonym Iurii Sherekh. The Kharkiv born and educated Shevelov died in New York at the age of ninety-three. Danylenko characterizes Shevelov as one "of the most eminent Slavists of the twentieth century".

A103. Danylenko, Andrii. "The latest version of the Slovo o polku Igoreve, or Was Jaroslav of Halych really shooting from his "Altan" in 1185?" Slavonic and East European Review. 82.4 (October 2004): 921–935.

A review article of Edward L. Keenan: Josef Dobrovsk" and the Origins of the Igor' Tale. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute and the Davis Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies, distributed by Harvard University Press, 2003. xxiv, 541 p. illus.) Danylenko finds Keenan's approach "too positivist in treating grammatical issues" and claims that Keenan's "linguistic argumentation lacks a good foundation", as a result of which the overall picture he presents "may appear far less convincing than intended."

A104. Finnin, Rory. "Mountains, masks, metre, meaning: Taras Shevchenko's "Kavkaz"." Slavonic and East European Review. 83.3 (July 2005): 396–439.

Finnin examines in detail the formal structure of Shevchenko's poem "Kavkaz" and its metrical variations, which, in his view, are "deliberate, meaningful and critical to the poem's content". "Following variations in metre to assert multiple personae", says Finnin, "accounts for the poem's internal conflicts and plasticity and makes sense of the text without imposing too much order where order is deliberately relinquished." Finnin writes of the poem's three-dimensionality, multiple discourses organized by metre, ie. a discourse of colonialism (expressed via iambic tetrameter), of anti-colonialism (expressed by way of kolomyika metre), and of post-colonialism (expressed in amphibrachic tetrameter). He discusses possible influences on Shevchenko's "Kavkaz" of Alexander Pushkin's "Kavkazskii plennik" and Gavril Derzhavin's "Vozvrashchenie grafa Zubova iz Persii". Shevchenko dedicated his poem to his friend Iakiv de Bal'men (1813–1845), a noble of Scottish descent, who as an officer in the Russian Imperial Army was killed in the Russian campaign against the Caucasus mountaineers. Honoring de Balmen, says Finnin, "a man who is at once a lover of Ukrainian culture and an instrument of imperial power", stages "a collision of discourses" and "this unsettling of ambivalence" is no accident.

A105. Grabowicz, George G. "Between subversion and self-assertion: the role of Kotliarevshchyna in Russian-Ukrainian literary relations." in Culture, Nation, and Identity: the Ukrainian-Russian Encounter (1600–1945). Ed. by Andreas Kappeler, Zenon E. Kohut, Frank E. Sysyn, and Mark von Hagen. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2003. 215–228.

An earlier treatment of a topic covered later in an essay entitled "Subversion and self-assertion: The role of Kotliarevshchyna in Russian-Ukrainian literary relations", published in History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe. Junctures and Disjunctures in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ed. by Marcel Cornis-Pope and John Neubauer. (Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pub. Co. [2004]: 401–408). [cf. annotation under A16]. Grabowicz uses Kotliarevshchyna as a generic and non-evaluative term and discusses the related problems of national identity, populism, Russian perceptions of Ukrainian culture and traces of Kotliarevshchyna in the socialist-realist style of the 20th century Ukrainian literature.

A106. Grabowicz, George G. "Mythologizing Lviv/Lwów: Echoes of presence and absence." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 24 (2000) [©2002]. Special issue: Lviv: a city in the crosscurrents of culture. Ed. by John Czaplicka. 313–342. Notes: 340–342.

"Lviv exemplifies a city of different, at times polar, experiences and interpretations," says Grabowicz, "... we can speak of both a Polish and a Ukrainian mythos of the city." Grabowicz discusses the myth of Lwów in the 20th century Polish literature on pp. 320–331, and 20th century Ukrainian narrative of Lviv on pp. 331–339. The focus of the Ukrainian subchapter is on Ukrainian contemporary writers Iurii Andrukhovych, Viktor Neborak, Nadiia Morykvas and Iurii Vynnychuk.

A107. Grabowicz, George G. "The Soviet and the post-Soviet discourses of contemporary Ukraine; literary scholarship, the humanities and the Russian-Ukrainian interface." From Sovietology to Postcoloniality: Poland and Ukraine from a Postcolonial Perspective. Ed. by Janusz Korek. [Huddinge]: Södertörn s hogskola, 2007. 61–81. Biblio. 81.

Grabowicz discusses the "colonial or quasi-colonial status of the newly emerging Ukrainian literature in the Russian Empire in the course of the 19th century", "the official Russian imperial response to Ukrainian literature and culture", "the model of colonial dependence/subordination/inferiority vis-a-vis the center", "the phenomenon of kotliarevshchyna" (where "the burlesque mode and crude, earthy, nativist and implicitly subversive elements came to be identified with Ukrainian literature as such"). Political restrictions in the Russian Empire limited Ukrainian studies, but they developed in Western Ukraine and in emigration and even in the Russian Empire a powerful sense of identity emerged on the basis of the vernacular language. In the period after the revolution, says Grabowicz, there was a "remarkable upsurge in academic and scholarly activity" and "a major revival in the arts". Stalin's attack against korenizatsiia and ukrainizatsiia, arrests of intellectuals, destruction of institutions, Russification and "the imperative of total control" led eventually to anti-intellectualism and anti-humanities bias. In the author's view, after Ukraine became independent "the pattern established in the final years of the Soviet period" was continued in many areas and as a result we have even today "near total hybridization of the humanities establishment, particularly in matters relating to literature", a diluted level of critical discourse, a virus of populism, "complacency about incompetence", tolerance of plagiarism, near total ignorance of languages other than Ukrainian or Russian, a legacy and continuity of socialist-realism, "xenophobic anti-Western feeling, coached as anti-modernism", a reflexive Russocentrism, parochialism and isolationism. The article originated as a paper read at a conference at the Södertörn University College in Stockholm in October 2005.

A108. Hnatiuk, Ola. "Nativists versus Westernizers. Problems of cultural identity in Ukrainian literature in the 1990's." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, 203–218.

Reprint of an article published originally in the Slavic and East European Journal, 50.3 (Fall 2006): 434–451. For annotation see A19.

A109. Hryn, Halyna. "The executed renaissance paradigm revisited." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 27. 1–4 (2004–2005) [©2008]: 67–96.

The opening up of libraries and archives after the collapse of the USSR, says Hryn, makes it possible to view the period of the 1920's in a slightly different light. Ukrainization, says Hryn, "went hand in hand with the institutionalization of greater social control and perhaps was even part of the package that helped Stalin secure his dominant position in the party." Khvylovyi, according to Hryn, drew heavily "on the Russian intellectual tradition of the immediate prerevolutionary period" and the Ukrainian Literary Discussion "was fueled in significant measure by the general realignment of forces taking place in the all-Union context." Khvylovyi's "endorsement of "romantic vitaism" or "active romanticism" as the style... best suited to the emerging Ukrainian proletarian culture", in Hryn's view, has its roots in the German "Sturm und Drang, as does the idea of a socially engaged willful intellectual... embodied in the Faustian man, Spengler's symbol of Western civilization." In the newly discovered pamphlet "Ukraina chy Malorosiia", "Khvyl'ovyi puts forward his vision of a golden age for Ukrainian literature, drawing the analogy to both Sturm und Drang and the nineteenth-century cultural growth experienced by Russia."

A110. Hrytsak, Yaroslav. "Franko's Boryslav cycle: an intellectual history." Journal of Ukrainan Studies. 29.1–2 (Summer–Winter 2004): 169–189.

Ivan Franko's Boryslav stories, namely Boa constrictor and Boryslav smiiet'sia, are among his best known and most widely read works. In the 1870's and early 1880's, when Franko wrote these stories, he was an active member of the Galician socialist movement and, according to Hrytsak, "Franko did not simply describe Boryslav in his writings, but tried to transform it into a centre of a strong socialist movement in Galicia." Hrytsak provides a historical background for the town of Boryslav as it really was, and Boryslav of the organized labor movement and striking workers", that existed only in the writer's imagination. Later, at the end of 1890's, Franko, according to Hrytsak, "renounced his youthful socialism and embraced nationalism, although of a very liberal form," and the third edition of Boa constrictor revised by the author "bore no hint of class conflict." Hrytsak's article appears in a special issue entitled Synopsis—a festschrift in honor of Zenon E. Kohut.

A111. Hundorova, Tamara. "Postcolonial Ressentiment—the Ukrainian case." From Sovietology to Postcoloniality: Poland and Ukraine from a Postcolonial Perspective. Ed. by Janusz Korek. [Huddinge]: Södertörns hogskola, 2007. 103–113. Biblio. 113.

Ressentiment—according to Hundorova—is an idea developed by Nietzsche ("overturn of the value-oriented view"), Max Scheler ("an existential envy of "somebody else's being"), Albert Camus ("passionate self-assertion"). She attempts to use the concept in her analysis of "postcolonial consciousness, in particular, in the case of the self-assertion of the colonized, subordinated subject who, metaphorically speaking, intercepts the views of the colonizer and inverts them." Hundorova analyzes the "manifestation of postcolonial ressentiment" in the novels of Iurii Andrukhovych. "Ukrainian postcolonial consciousness at the end of 20th century", says Hundorova, "is marked by the overcoming of cultural provinciality and marginality and as such is infected to a significant degree with imaginary revenge and the emotions of ressentiment inspired by anticolonial protest." The author makes a comparison of the Polish writer's Andrzej Stasiuk's essay "My Europe" with Andrukhovych's essay on the same subject (published together in one book in 2001) and concludes that the two visions of Europe are fundamentally different. This article originated as a paper read at a conference at the Södertörn University College in Stockholm in October 2005. A112. Ilnytzkyj, Oleh S. "Cultural indeterminacy in the Russian Empire: Nikolai Gogol as a Ukrainian post-colonial writer." A World of Slavic Literatures: Essays in comparative Slavic studies in honor of Edward Mozejko. Ed. by Paul D. Morris. Bloomington, IN: Slavica, 2002. 153–171.

Nikolai Gogol, an ethnic Ukrainian who wrote in Russian, is part of the Russian literary canon. However, Gogol to be understood properly, according to Ilnytzkyj, "must be taken out of the vague "all-Russia" construct and located in the "Imperial Public Sphere", the common social space that was not entirely congruent either with Russian or Ukrainian cultures." Gogol, says Ilnytzkyj, should be spoken of as a "Ukrainian-Russian writer, or, "perhaps, more accurately, as a "Russo-Ukrainian" writer, a definition that ideally will evoke analogies to the concept "Anglo-Irish" This will, of course, require recognition of a distinct Ukrainian culture that was expressed through the Russian language..."

A113. Ilnytzkyj, Oleh S. "In memoriam: George Stephen Nestor Luckyj (1919–2001)." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 43.4 (December 2001): [408].

One page obituary of G.S.N. Luckyj, professor of Slavic languages and literatures at the University of Toronto, who died on 22 November 2001. Luckyj, author or editor of many studies of Ukrainian literature, was also a pioneer translator of Ukrainian writers into English. He was also the first editor of Canadian Slavonic Papers (1956–1961).

A114. Keenan, Edward L. "Turkic lexical elements in the Igor Tale and the Zadonščina." Slavonic and East Eauropean Review. 80.3 (July 2002): 479–482.

A critical commentary on the article by Nicholas Poppe, Jr. in the April 2001 issue of Slavonic and East European Review [cf. A131]. Keenan takes issue with Poppe's thesis and claims that "there is nothing about the Turkic lexicon of the Igor Tale, or that of the Zadonščina, that prevents one from concluding that the Igor Tale was written in the late eighteenth century, on the basis, among other texts, of the Zadonščina."

A115. Kobets, Svitlana. "Discovering the universe between the feminine and masculine: Valerii Shevchuk's Hunchback Zoya." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 44.1–2 (March–June 2002): 39–60.

Valerii Shevchuk's prose, according to Kobets, is mythological. She attempts to interpret the symbols and topoi in Shevchuk's novella Horbunka Zoia, relying on ideas developed by Carl Jung and using the methods of archetypal criticism. The feminine and masculine characters in the story represent the "unconscious and conscious parts of the novella's psychic microcosm" and "the confrontational drama between the female and male characters can be read as a story of their individuation", according to Kobets. Moreover, Horbunka Zoia "endorses an implicit postcolonial argument", says Kobets, because the personal individuation of the four male protagonists "can also be viewed in the broader context of Ukraine's recent history, thus inviting a parallel with the national individuation of Ukraine." The essay is interspersed with a number of quotations from the novella—in the original Ukrainian and in the author's literal translation.

A116. Kobets, Svitlana. "Quest for selfhood and dystopia in Valerii Shevchuk's Eye of the Abyss." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 48.1-2 (March–June 2006): 1–19.

In Valerii Shevchuk's novel Oko prirvy the plot involves a fictional religious utopia set in a distant pseudo-historical past and the pursuit of truth and self-awareness of four Christian pilgrims. "Although the novel's ostensible thematic concerns are presented in terms of ecclesiastical and theological issues," says Kobets, "they point to urgent problems in post-Soviet Ukraine." In the author's view, Shevchuk has "a well-known penchant for contemplating post-Soviet reality in allegorical settings." She analyzes the novel in great detail and concludes that "the protagonist's quest for self-realization and truth is epitomized in his self-aware, renewed self and dystopian vision. Independent thinking, open-mindedness and tolerance are the key human values that make the narrator's quest for selfhood successful, rendering him immune to pride-stricken leaders, arrogant teachers and false saints." All quotations from the text of the novel are from the English translation published in Ukrainian Literature: a Journal of Translations (1, 2004). ("Eye of the Abyss", trans. by Olha Rudakevych).

A117. Koscharsky, Halyna. "Ukrainian feminist poetry: is it coming of age?" Canadian Slavonic Papers. 45.3–4 (September–December 2003): 307–316.

Koscharsky examines the poetry of contemporary Ukraine using the methodology of feminist criticism. She focuses on three Ukrainian poets: Lina Kostenko, Natalka Bilotserkivets" and Oksana Zabuzhko. Kostenko challenges the patriarchal social order, provides new and unexpected interpretations of historical events and questions the male-centered view of gender roles, says Koscharsky. Bilotserkivets" "does not consider herself a writer of gendered or feminist texts," says the author, but she considers Bilotserkivets" "a masked feminist", "in the sense that her textual strategies are hidden from the uninitiated reader and require an informed interpretation.". The "most strikingly feminist approach", according to Koscharsky, is that of Oksana Zabuzhko. The author discusses Zabuzhko's "abiding interest in sexual politics", her eroticism, her attempts to condemn the patriarchal system of the past and to change the gender roles of the present. Brief quotations are provided in the original Ukrainian with a literal translation by the author (Kostenko: 8 lines from Marusia Churai, and 8 lines from Zabuzhko's poem "Konkurs krasy").

A118. Melnitchenko, Eugene. "Mykola Khvylovy—'Away from Moscow'." / Eugene Melnitchenko and Helena Lysyj Melnitchenko. Ukrainian Quarterly. 63.2 (Summer 2007): 205–211.

As a writer of fiction, Mykola Khvyl'ovyi created the style of so called "vitalized romanticism" by combining "expressionism and neoromanticism to give his stories spontaneity and intensity of inner vision...", say the authors. In his polemical pamphlets, Khvyl'ovyi admonished Ukrainian writers to fight provincialism and primitivism, to orient themselves psychologically on Europe and its many accomplishments and to separate themselves "from a psychological dependence on Moscow." "Ukrainian literature and poetry should flee as quickly as possible from Russian, because over the centuries it had impeded their development and would continue to do so in the future. It had conditioned the Ukrainian psyche to feel inferior and had defined everything produced by Ukraine as "Little Russian"," say the authors paraphrasing the views expressed by Khvyl'ovyi in his essays. Khvyl'ovyi, say Meltnitchenkos, was not afraid to say that "for Ukrainian literature to play on the world stage, it had to escape its "Little Russian" mentality and develop its own independent path".

A119. Mycak, Sonia. "Two Lands, New Visions: Stories from Canada and Ukraine: Bi-cultural/transnational production problematised." Canuke Literature: Critical Essays on Canadian Ukrainian Writing. Huntington, N.Y.: Nova Scotia Publications [©2001]. 97–125.

Sonia Mycak's book deals with Canadian literature written by Ukrainian-Canadians in the English language, represented by Canadian authors such as Vera Lysenko and Helen Potrebenko. Chapter 5 of this book, however, is a review article of Two Lands, New Visions: Stories from Canada and Ukraine. (Ed. by Janice Kulyk Keefer and Solomea Pavlychko. Tr. from Ukrainian by Marco Carynnyk and Marta Horban. Regina, SK: Coteau Books, ©1998, 312 p.), an anthology of short stories, which includes both Canadian Ukrainian authors writing in English and translations of stories by Ukrainian writers from Ukraine. Mycak analyzes the contents of this anthology and concludes that "The styles with which the Ukrainians and Canadian-Ukrainians write are different, thematically and in terms of subject matter there is no common ground or two-way exchange... Given the lack of visible or articulable similarity between the two groups of writers, in this instance their juxtaposition is forced, if not unjustifiable."

A120. Naydan, Michael M. "Translating a novel's novelty: Yuri Andrukhovych's Perverzion in English." Yale Journal of Criticism. 16.2 (Fall 2003): 455–464.

Andrukhovych's novel Perverziia was published in Michael M. Naydan's translation by the Northwestern University Press in a series entitled "Writings from an unbound Europe". (Yuri Andrukhovych. Perverzion. Tr. from the Ukrainian and with an introd by Michael M. Naydan. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2005. xiv, 326 p.). In this Yale Journal of Criticism essay Naydan discusses his "strategies for translating what might at first appear to be untranslatable elements of the novel, for finding correspondences in English that convey similar effects to the original." Perverziia, according to Naydan, "is replete with linguistic and stylistic complexities", with "multiple and oftentimes hidden meanings", with various narrative voices, several different versions of the narrative, etc. In addition, polysemy and poeticality of the text add to the difficulties faced by the translator. Names of protagonists in the novel are in Naydan's view "quite significant", and he discusses in some detail his attempts to convey "the intrinsic humor of their appellations" and their "meaningful nature". Naydan's goal in the English translation, according to his statement, was "to convey as much of the meaning, sound, and humor of the original as possible." There are several quotations from the novel—in the original Ukrainian and in Naydan's English translation.

A121. Naydan, Michael M. "Ukrainian avant-garde poetry today." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, 186–202.

Reprint of an article published originally in the Slavic and East European Journal, 50.3 (Fall 2006): 452–468. For annotation see A44.

A122. "New voices for a new millenium in Ukrainian poetry." Ukrainian Quarterly. 56.4 (Winter 2000): 369–382.

A selection of recent poetry by young poets of Ukraine, with two introductions: one by Iurii Andrukhovych (p.369–370), the other by Michael M. Naydan, the translator (p.370–371). The new Ukrainan poetry, according to Andrukhovych, is characterized by its diversity which includes "essentially modernistic or avant-garde practices of a particular pathos, and postmodernist practices with their particular irony". It is also "quite hermetic and less comprehensible for the traditional Ukrainian reader," says Andrukhovych. Naydan's translations, according to his introductory note, originated during his stay in Lviv during the Winter and Spring semesters of 1999. The poetry translations are preceded by a brief introductory note for each of the young authors.

Contents: Andrii Bondar: Aquasonnet (A gourmet and fop, red velvet). • *** (This is when the day returns). • Maryana Kiyanovska: *** (I will become too dense as an almond, like light). • *** (The heraldry of life. An empty cemetery). • Maria Kryvenko: *** (There's rain in Lviv, though April has been overcome). • *** (In this city). • Halyna Petrosanyak: *** (I love this road at 6:30 AM, when). • *** (To remain at the Dominican school near Vienna for always). • *** (From the bird's eye view of a turret and cupola). • Maryna Savka: *** (Drawings on stone. The first leaves of fall) • Visions of a dead city (1. The moon hung over a mountain spire. 2. Ophelia's in white madness. 3. This is some kind of asylum. I'm caught. Killed.) • Yaryna Senchyshyn: *** (in the black earth). • (a black sarcophagus). • Serhiy Zhadan: *** (On the twentieth of April it rained). • *** (Everything, as always, is justified). • Timofey Havriliv: The vase (Wandering the earth from land to land, amid). • A definition of distance (An arrow on a clock face).

A123. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "Cultural perceptions, mirror images, and western identification in new Ukrainian drama" / Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych. " Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, [©2009]. 162–185. Bibliography: 181–185.

Reprint of an article published originally in the Slavic and East European Journal, 50.3 (Fall 2006): 409–433. For annotation see A47.

A124. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "The Holodomor of 1932–1933 as presented in drama and the issue of blame" / Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych. Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 37.3 (Fall 2003): 89–96.

An examination of three Ukrainian plays that deal with the famine-genocide of 1932–1933, namely "Potomky" by Iurii Ianovs'kyi, "Tysiacha deviat'sot trydtsiat" tretii" by Serhii Kokot-Ledians'kyi and "Holod" by Bohdan Boichuk. Ianovs'kyi's play published in 1939 in Soviet Ukraine is characterized by Onyshkevych as "a very black-and-white agitplay praising Soviet life and collectivization", where the only starving victims of the famine are kurkuls, well to do farmers, who do not want to join the collective farms. The other two plays were written by playwrights in exile. Ledians'kyi's play written in 1942, says Onyshkevych, "represents a very personal statement of an eyewitness", "is composed of some unforgettable scenes" and depicts horrid events "without anger or any judgment.". Boichuk's play, written in 1961–1962, "deals with the historical event as a symbol of a larger symptom" and "extends the particular symbol of 1933 to the general issue of man's inhumanity to man." , according to Onyshkevych. The article contains brief excerpts from the Ledians'kyi's play in Onyshkevych's translation, and of Boichuk's play in translations by Vera Rich.

A125. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "In memoriam: Professor John Fizer (1925–2007)." / Larissa M. L. Zaleska Onyshkevych. Ukrainian Quarterly. 63.3–4 (Fall–Winter 2007): 346–349. port.

An obituary of Rutgers University Professor Emeritus who died on 28 August 2007. He is characterized by the author as "a teacher, mentor, scholar and authority on literary theory, psychology, philosophy and comparative literature." The article covers both Fizer's published works and his scholarly activities and associations.

A126. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Choosing a Europe: Andrukhovych, Izdryk, and the new Ukrainian literature." New Zealand Slavonic Journal. 35 (2001): 37–48.

Both Iurii Andrukhovych and Iurii Izdryk belong to the Ivano-Frankivsk circle of young writers who, beginning with the late 1980's, were "determined to produce cultural artifacts that differed radically, both from the norms of official Soviet writing, and from the traditions and values of the Ukrainian literary canon." In their attempt to turn away from the East, they turn to Western Europe and the traditions and cultural choices this implies. Pavlyshyn discusses Andrukhovych's works, especially his essays and travelogues, and Izdryk's short novel Votstsek and concludes: "Andrukhovych struggles to preserve the joy of seduction by Europe... In his efforts to remain detached—a tourist, a Europhile - he admires, enthuses, describes, classifies, and interprets. Yet, in the end, he acknowledges that he cannot but be involved. Europe is his, warts and all - not only its rococo palaces, but also its genocides. Izdryk, less ambivalent, has no comparable detachment. Europe's great problems are his problems. He is not a Europhile, but a European." .

A127. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Choosing a Europe. Andrukhovych, Izdryk, and the new Ukrainian literature." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, [©2009]. 249–263. Notes and references: 261–263.

Reprint of an essay published originally in the New Zealand Slavonic Journal 35 (2001):37–48. For annotation see A126.

A128. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "The uses of Nietzsche: Ol'ha Kobylians'ka's reading of Zarathustra." Slavonic and East European Review. 86.3 (July 2008): 420–442.

Pavlyshyn examines two works by Ol'ha Kobylians'ka - the short story "Vin i vona" (1892) and the novel Tsarivna (1896) and analyzes in detail her allusions and references to the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, especially to his work Also Sprach Zarathustra (1883–1884). Pavlyshyn points out the areas of Kobylians'ka's agreement and disagreement with Nietzsche and concludes that she accepts "the Nietzschean precept that human beings are capable of, and should seek, a transformation of themselves into self-affirming beings characterized by intensified knowledge and freedom. But they refuse to be comforted by the vision of such a transformation unless it is accompanied by a proposal for its activation in society, and unless it involves as part of the project of human fulfilment a privileged and elevating relationship with another person." "The Nietzschean ideal of the "bermensch", says Pavlyshyn, is relegated by Kobylians'ka "to the status of a seductive mirage, trumped by the force of circumstances".

A129. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "What really happens in Kobylians'ka's Land and why it matters?" Canadian Slavonic Papers. 43.4 (December 2001): 511–531.

The plot of Ol'ha Kobylians'ka's novel Zemlia involves a fratricide, i.e. the murder of a young Ukrainian peasant by his brother, supposedly for the sake of land. That, at least, is the view of the established critical opinion, both of Soviet Ukrainian critics, and of non-Soviet literary scholars. Pavlyshyn takes issue with this view and claims that Kobylians'ka's novel "leaves the identity of the killer uncertain". and that according to Kobylians'ka's world view (expressed also in some of her other writings), "events are unknowable and subject to no discernible laws, while human convictions about their causation are irrational." The novel Zemlia is a tragedy not because of "inevitable presence of evil in human affairs" or because of "inexorable social or psychological forces that render a catastrophic event ... inevitable". It is a tragedy, "because inexplicable catastrophic events occur, and human suffering ensues, and because human beings readily ascribe guilt on insufficient grounds, thus multiplying the suffering caused by the events themselves," says Pavlyshyn.

A130. Poppe, Nicholas Jr. "A note on Turkic lexical elements in the Slovo o polku Igoreve and the Zadonščina." Slavonic and East European Review. 79.2 (April 2001): 201–211.

Tha author examines Altaic lexical elements in Zadonščina and in Slovo o polku Ihorevim and concludes that "the Slovo cannot be considered secondary to the Zadonščina, and that the source of the Zadonščina is the Slovo."

A131. Poppe, Nicholas, Jr. "A further note on Turkic lexical elements in the Slovo o polku Igoreve and the Zadonščina." Slavonic and East European Review 82.1 (January 2004): 74–78.

Poppe responds to Keenan's criticism [cf. A114] and defends his original thesis. that the presence of numerous archaic Turkic words in the text of the Slovo o polku Ihorevim "corroborates its antiquity."

A132. Pylypiuk, Natalia. "Vasyl" Stus, mysticism and the Great Narcissus." A World of Slavic Literatures: Essays in comparative Slavic studies in honor of Edward Mozejko. Ed. by Paul D. Morris. Bloomington, IN: Slavica, 2002. 173–210.

Pylypiuk discusses mystical narcissism as manifested in the works of Ukrainian dissident poet Vasyl" Stus (1938–1985) and its relationship to the lyrical and philosophical legacy of Hryhorii Skovoroda. Ukrainian philosopher Skovoroda (1722–1794), was the author of an allegorical work "The Narcissus. A Deliberation on the Topic: Know Thyself", which, says Pylypiuk, posits a program for "the discovery and practice of one's true calling." According to Pylypiuk, "the philosophical, mystical, and psychological aspects of narcissism play a significant role in Vasyl Stus's works and are "ineluctably linked to the ethical choices he made in his political life." The article is interspersed with quotations from Stus" poetry—in the original Ukrainian and in Pylypiuk's literal translations. The longer fragments are: Spasybi, koly ty ie ty (10 lines), O ne zovy mene, ne klych mene (16 lines), Strashna kovbania—chorna i masna (16 lines), Ia bachu tilky tin tvoiu—i vzhe (16 lines), Slovo (Ote khystke , led" z"iavlene, kotre (8 lines), Meni zdaiet'sia, shcho zhyvu ne ia (20 lines), Vshrubovuiet'sia molode korinnia (10 lines), Vin khoche poza mene vyity. Prahne (15 lines), Nich - khai bude t`mianisha za temnu (12 lines), Toi bidnyi vykvit ridnoi zemli ((8 lines), Shche kil'ka lit—i uvirvet'sia viaz" (12 lines).

A133. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Alternative history, science fiction and nationalism in Vasyl Kozhelianko's novels." Ukrainian Quarterly. 63.1 (Spring 2007): 70–78.

Rewakowicz analyzes seven novels by contemporary Ukrainian writer Vasyl" Kozhelianko, namely Defiliada v Moskvi, Liudynets", Konotop, Lzhenostradamus, Kotyhoroshko, Terorium and Sribnyi pavuk. Kozhelianko, according to Rewakowicz, "always adheres to the same formula, wherein historical events are twisted in such a way as to create alternative realities both in the past and the present. There is an agenda behind this particular blend of history (real and made-up) with the elements of science fiction, and it has to do with the author's stand on nationalism." Kozhelianko, says the author, creates a new historical reality "to underscore the significance and power of the Ukrainian state"; what saves him from being a chauvinist, is his humorous tone and "postmodernist devices in his prose, including self-referential passages, as well as pastiche and parody." Excerpts from Defiliada v Moskvi and Konotop, in the author's translation, are used as illustrations. This article is a revised version of a paper presented at the VII World Congress of the International Council for Central and East European Studies in Berlin on 27 July 2005.

A134. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Periphery versus centre: The New York Group's poetics of exile." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 45.3–4 (September–December 2003): 441–457.

The founding members of the New York Group of Poets—a group that began its activities in the 1950's in New York City—consisted of seven young Ukrainian writers, namely Bohdan Boichuk, Bohdan Rubchak, Emma Andiievs'ka, Vira Vovk, Zhenia Vasyl'kivs'ka, Iurii Tarnavs'kyi and Patrytsiia Kylyna. Except for Kylyna, who was born in the United States of non-Ukrainian parents, learned Ukrainian language and chose to write and publish poetry in Ukrainian, all the others came to the United States as immigrants. Rewakowicz argues "that , although these poets were territorially peripheral" [vis-avis the center, i.e. Ukraine] "they were aesthetically central to the development of Ukrainian literature in the 1960's. However, because their innovations became widely known in the homeland only twenty years later, their centrality can only be appreciated historically." The article is interspersed with quotations of poetry in the original Ukrainian and in the author's own literal translation. The longer fragments are: Boichuk: My path (23 lines); I want to touch your wounds with my lips (7 lines). " Vasyl'kivs'ka: So we gather you, because you shattered (8 lines). " Rubchak: The shoulders got tired of uncomfortable wings (14 lines); Oh, girl without a road (8 lines). " Iurii Tarnavs'kyi: When I die, burn (12 lines); Oh, country, you suffer from a maternity complex (4 lines). " Vovk: they sprouted (9 lines).

A135. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Women's literary discourse and national identity in post-Soviet Ukraine." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 27.1–4 (2004–2005) [©2008]: 195–216. Notes: 213–216.

Rewakowicz discusses two groups of writers: literary critics who—for the first time in history—introduced into Ukrainian literary scholarship feminist and psychoanalytical interpretations, and writers of fiction with a feminist autobiographical approach. The first group, the critics of the Kyiv Center of Gender Studies: Solomiia Pavlychko, Tamara Hundorova, Vira Aheieva and Nila Zborovs'ka introduced new methodologies for the reading of Ukrainian classics and new controversial subjects of sexuality and gender. Their work is discussed in considerable detail. The second group, writers of belles-lettres, preoccupied with national, gender, and class identities, who tend to blend the national and the personal are represented in Rewakowicz's article by Oksana Zabuzhko, Nila Zborovs'ka, Svitlana Pyrkalo and Natalka Sniadanko. Among the poets who deal with feminist and national concerns Rewakowicz mentions Marianna Kiianovska, Mar'iana Savka and Liudmyla Taran.

A136. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Women's literary discourse and national identity in post-Soviet Ukraine." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, [©2009]: 275–294.

An essay published originally in Harvard Ukrainian Studies 27.1–4 (2004–2005) [©2008]: 195–216. Notes: 213–216. For annotation see A135.

A137. Romanets, Maryna. "His stories becoming histories: Lina Kostenko's poetic martyr-drama." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 45.3–4 (September–December 2003): 317–336.

Marusia Churai - Lina Kostenko's book-long poem is , says Romanets, "a story of fatal love, betrayal, witchcraft, revenge and murder." Most critics consider it a historical novel where private life of the heroine is interwoven with the socio-political environment of 17th century Ukraine. According to Romanets, "Kostenko's neo-baroque text reenacts a martyr-drama (both of Ukrainian history and Marusia's way to Self) that reveals the mechanism of conversion whereby obscured and suppressed histories resurface as symptoms on the colonized body politic to be reread, reinterpreted, and rewritten." Brief quotations from the novel in verse are given in the original Ukrainian with an interlinear translation by the author.

A138. Rozumnyj, Jaroslav. "Leonid Kyselov's choice." Ukrainian Quarterly. 63.3–4 (Fall–Winter 2007): 246–266.

Leonid Kyselov (known also as Kiselev) was a young poet who died of leukemia in 1968 at the age of 22. He was born in Kyiv on 21 September 1946 of non-Ukrainian parents He wrote in Russian until the last year of his life when he suddenly began writing and publishing exclusively in Ukrainian. What makes this choice especially intriguing., says Rozumnyj, is the fact that this "occurred at a time of intensified and overt Russification in Ukraine, at a time when the Ukrainian language was being deliberately downgraded at all levels of society". According to Rozumnyj, Kyselov's poetic self-definition was a psychological, social and moral act, "a conscious and intellectual choice, based on his awareness of the political and cultural plight of Ukraine." Rozumnyj analyzes Kyselov's Russian and Ukrainian poetry, stressing the young poet's "effective use of myth and symbol, his clarity, sincerity and irony." Quotations of Kyselov's Russian and Ukrainian poetry are given in transliterated form with a literal (apparently Rozumnyj's own ) translation in English. The Ukrainian variant of this article was presented originally at a Ukrainian conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1982.

A139. Rubchak, Bohdan. "The displaced heart." Harriman Review. 16.1 (October 2008): 17–23. illus.

A personal memoir of Iurii Lavrynenko by a literary scholar and a member of the New York Group of Ukrainian poets. Lavrynenko, says Rubchak, "viewed all Ukrainian literature through the filter of the twenties", "he features and highlights members of the VAPLITE group and the Neoklasyky", and sometimes elevates them "to the level of superhuman mythical heroes". Lavrynenko greeted enthusiastically the appearance of the New York Group and became their mentor, but his "love affair" with the New York Group, says Rubchak, was based on a series of misunderstandings. Lavrynenko's critical articles on these young poets "are much more prescriptive than descriptive". But his "warm, open heart, love of literature, and boundless love of life," says Rubchak, "became for us a bridge between the American streets of our daily lives and our dream of Ukraine.". This article is part of the special issue of the Harriman Review, guest edited by Mark Andryczyk, which consists of papers from the symposium entitled "Yurii Lawrynenko: Path and Legacy". The symposium was held at Columbia University on October 25, 2007. For other contributions see Andryczyk [A96], Shraga-Davidenko [A143], Stech [A146].

A140. Shcherbak, Yuriy. "A eulogy for Roman Oliynyk-Rakhmanny." Ukrainian Quarterly. 58.2–3 (Summer–Fall 2002): 271–272.

The eulogy was delivered in Montreal on 27 June 2002, apparently at Roman Oliinyk's funeral. Shcherbak spoke both as Ukraine's ambassador to Canada and as a member of the Writers" Union of Ukraine. He called Oliinyk-Rakhmannyi "a person of heroic destiny and prophetic talent... one of the most brilliant figures of twentieth-century Ukraine". Shcherbak's eulogy follows an unsigned editorial obituary ( 270–271, port.) Roman Oliinyk (pseudonym: Rakhmannyi) was born 26 December 1918 in Ukraine, died on 24 June 2002 in Canada. He is characterized as "one of the most notable journalists-publicists and political commentators in the Ukrainian diaspora." He was also the author of literary studies and a recipient of the Shevchenko Prize in 1994.

A141. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "Avant-gardist versus neoclassicist: Viktor Domontovych's early novels." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 42.3 (September 2000): 315–329.

Viktor Petrov was a controversial figure with a mysterious biography. In the 1920's in Soviet Ukraine he was known as a prose writer who published under the pseudonym Viktor Domontovych; he was also a scholar and a member of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. In the post-war years he was active in literary circles among the Ukrainian refugees in Germany, as a writer of fiction under the pseudonym Domontovych, and as a literary scholar under the name of Viktor Petrov or V. Ber. After disappearing in April 1949, he resurfaced in Soviet Ukraine in 1956 as a scholar in the Institute of Archeology. Four years before his death in 1969 he was awarded a Soviet medal for espionage. Shkandrij analyzes two of Domontovych's novels Divchynka z vedmedykom and Doktor Seraficus, and a story "Ekhardt i Gozzi"—all written in the 1920's in Ukraine. The underlying principle in Domontovych's fiction, according to Shkandrij, is the conflict between avant-gardists and neoclassicists. Both project a new type of literature, but while the avant-garde writers, represented primarily by futurists and constructivists, "develop iconoclastic forms that aim to capture their vision of a dynamic, urban, technocratic modernity", the neoclassicists lack their oponents revolutionary fervour and stress rationalism and scepticism, says Shkandrij. Domontovych, according to the author, "felt hostile to the outmoded nineteenth-century populism, and was drawn to the analytical, demystificatory experiments of contemporary cubists, futurists and constructivists", but his "fear of irrationality in human behaviour caused him to adopt a sceptical stance toward the results of violent and radical upheaval.".

A142. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "The postcolonial moment in Ukrainian writing." From Sovietology to Postcoloniality: Poland and Ukraine from a Postcolonial Perspective. Ed. by Janusz Korek. [Huddinge]: Södertörns hogskola, 2007. 83–92. Biblio. 92.

"The methodologies, the concepts, the insights and examples that have been provided by postcolonial studies," says Shkandrij, "can provide stimulus for the analysis of the Ukrainian cultural experience, and, in particular, for the reinterpretation of many literary texts." Postcolonial critique has been applied to Andrukhovych's novel Rekreatsii and to other literary phenomena, but strong resistance exists to some aspects of postcolonial writing, says Shkandrij. This resistance comes not only from the Russians, but also from some Ukrainian writers and critics for a variety of reasons. Colonialism is viewed as a demeaning term, "admittance of backwardness is not comforting", there is a "reluctance to assume a defensive posture", and a "reassertion of the nationalism paradigm". "The new postcolonial literature.... is born out of rejection of both the imperial and the anti-imperial", says Shkandrij. He discusses the so called Stanyslaviv school (Andrukhovych, Zabuzhko, Prokhasko, Vynnychuk, Dibrova, Izdryk, Moskalets)—the writers whose work is "postcolonial and playful in its attitudes to the deconstruction of colonial and anti-colonial myths" and the so called Zhytomyr school (Viacheslav Medvid', Ievhen Pashkovs'kyi, Volodymyr Danylenko)—the writers who are "hostile toward the postcolonial, appearing to reject not only cosmopolitanism, but pluralism, tolerance, and in fact many aspects of Western civilization" and who are "demonstratively aligned... with populism and traditions..." This article originated as a paper read at a conference at the Södertörn University College in Stockholm in October 2005.

A143. Shraga-Davidenko, Katia. "The Yurii Lawrynenko archive." Harriman Review. 16.1 (October 2008): 1–2. illus.

A description of the Iurii Lavrynenko's papers deposited in the Bakhmetieff Archive of Russian and East European History and Culture at the Rare Book and Manuscript Library of Columbia University in New York. According to the archivist Shraga-Davidenko, the collection consists of 89 archival boxes of materials, including correspondence, manuscripts, research notes, photographs, documents, diaries, notebooks, memoirs, audio materials. This special issue of the Harriman Review, guest edited by Mark Andryczyk, consists of papers from the symposium entitled "Yurii Lawrynenko: Path and Legacy", which was held at Columbia University on October 25, 2007. For other contributions see Andryczyk [A96], Rubchak [A139], Stech [A146].

A144. Shtohryn, Dmytro M. "Lesia Ukrayinka in Pavlo Fylypovych's criticism." Ukrainian Quarterly. 58.1 (Spring 2002): 34–56.

The first scholarly edition of Lesia Ukrainka's works appeared in 1927–1930, edited by Borys Iakubs'kyi. Pavlo Fylypovych, professor of Ukrainian literature at the University of Kyiv, was among the first scholars who did serious research on Lesia Ukrainka's writings and contributed several critical articles to this edition. Shtohryn discusses in detail Fylypovych's analyses of Lesia Ukrainka's poems "Rusalka", and "Odno slovo", and of her long dramatic poem "U pushchi", as well as Fylypovych's essay "Obraz Prometeia v tvorakh Lesi Ukrainky", which was first published in Fylypovych's book Z novitnioho ukrains'koho pys'menstva (Kyiv: Kultura, 1929). In Shtohryn's view, Fylypovych's studies on Lesia Ukrainka "might be considered pioneering investigations." The author considers Fylypovych's "Obraz Prometeia..." the weakest of these studies and takes issue with some of his statements. Fylypovych's comparative method was not approved by Marxist critics, his works were eventually condemned and his ideas were either ignored completely, or used by other critics without giving Fylypovych the proper credit, says Shtohryn.

A145. Stech, Marko Robert. "Symbols of transformation. The reflection of Ukraine's "identity shift" in four Ukrainian novels of the 1990s." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, [©2009]. 231–248. Notes and references: 246–248.

The four novels discussed in this essay are Perverziia by Iurii Andrukhovych, Oko prirvy by Valerii Shevchuk, Votstsek by Iurii Izdryk and Ne-my by Iurko Hudz". Carl Jung's psychology "can shed much light on the problem of how and to what extent contents and form of artistic and literary creations mirror their authors" existential and psychological conditions", says Stech, and he attempts to extrapolate these ideas into the realm of a national culture. The motifs of death and resurrection are among the most important Jungian archetypal patterns, according to Stech. "In contrast to Andrukhovych's Perverzion (where the treatment of the archetypal motif of death and resurrection is incomplete and, in essence, no "resurrection" takes place) and Shevchuk's Eye of the Abyss (where the authenticity of the "rebirth" is questionable), Izdryk's Wozzeck and Hudz's Not-Us indicate that an authentic and profound shift in the individual and collective sense of identity actually took place in Ukraine in the mid-1990's," says Stech.

A146. Stech, Marko Robert. "Yurii Lawrynenko: In the shadow of his "epoch-defining" anthology." Harriman Review. 16.1 (October 2008): 9–16. illus.

Lavrynenko's anthology Rozstriliane vidrodzhennia "defines the essence of the Ukrainian cultural revival of the 1920's even today", says Stech, but the focus of his article is on Lavrynenko's critical essays on Ukrainian literature, especially on his "Literatura mezhovoi sytuatsii", his essays about Pavlo Tychyna, and his memoirs. Stech points out both the strengths and the weaknesses of Lavrynenko's critical approach and stresses Lavrynenko's remarkable talent "to grasp intuitively the essential crux of a given literary phenomenon and express its universal significance..." This article is part of the special issue of the Harriman Review, guest edited by Mark Andryczyk, which consists of papers from the symposium entitled "Yurii Lawrynenko: Path and Legacy". The symposium was held at Columbia University on October 25, 2007. For other contributions see Andryczyk [A96], Rubchak [A139], Shraga-Davidenko [A143].

A147. Stefanowska, Lidia. "Back to the Golden Age. The discourse of nostalgia in Galicia in the 1990's. Some preliminary remarks." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 27.1–4 (2004–2005) [c2008] 181–193. Notes: 192–193.

Social disillusionment in Ukraine leads to the rise of nostalgia—on the one hand, nostalgia for Soviet times, on the other, nostalgia for the age of Austro-Hungarian rule in Galicia. Stefanowska focuses on the various expressions of this nostalgia in Western Ukraine. The literary examples given deal with the writings of Iurii Andrukhovych who, in Stefanowska's words, created "his own, private myths of Stanyslaviv, Galicia, and Europe", and of the literary journal Potiah 76—the title referring to the train no.76 running from Chernivtsi to Przemysl, and thus, symbolically uniting Austro-Hungary, Ukraine, and Poland.

A148. Stefanowska, Lidia. "Back to the Golden Age. The discourse of nostalgia in Galicia in the 1990's." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, [©2009]. 219–230. Notes and bibliography 228-230.

Reprint of an essay published originally in Harvard Ukrainian Studies. For annotation see A147.

A149. Tarnawsky, Maxim. "Images of bonding and social decay in contemporary Ukrainian prose: Reading Serhii Zhadan and Anatolii Dnistrovy." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, [©2009]: 264–274.

The author discusses four novels by two young Ukrainian writers, namely Big Mak and Depesh mod by Serhii Zhadan and Misto upovil'nenoi dii and Patetychnyi blud by Anatolii Dnistrovyi. Unlike their slightly older colleagues, such as Iurii Andrukhovych and Oksana Zabuzhko (both born in 1960), whose protagonists are very individualistic and self-centered, and have no group identity or loyalty, says Maxim Tarnawsky, Zhadan and Dnistrovyi (both born in 1974) "focus on collective identities, on socially deviant behavior, and a search for permanent, stable values." Analyzing these four novels in considerable detail, the author sees significant changes in recent Ukrainian literature: "The euphoric celebration of the freedom of the individual... has given way to a somber and measured assessment of the social order," while "experimentation with modernist, postmodernist, and post-postmodernist playfulness and innovation in literary form and style has given way to some more traditional aesthetic constructions..."

A150. Tromly, Benjamin. "An unlikely national revival: Soviet higher learning and the Ukrainian "Sixtiers", 1953–65." Russian Review. 68 (October 2009): 607–622.

Tromly stresses the link between Ukrainian shistdesiatnyky and the "broader reformist currents in the Soviet Union" known as the Thaw. Shistdesiatnyky, says Tromly, "were products of Soviet higher education and the opportunities for national thinking that it offered." "Far from being an anti-Soviet phenomenon", says the author, the shistdesiatnyky aspired to "the cultural and humanistic reinvention of Soviet socialism". Ethnic Ukrainian students who moved from villages to Kyiv university experienced "status inconsistency" vis-a-vis their urban and Russian speaking colleagues and that led to their embracing of Ukrainian national identity, says Tromly. That, in turn, "appeared as a revolutionary cause, part of the process of purging Marxism-Leninism of its Stalinist distortions". It was only the hostile reaction of the Soviet authorities and the repressions that followed, according to Tromly, that drove some shistdesiatnyky "from cultural nationalism to political dissent", to the movement in defense of political and national rights.

A151. Zorivchak, Roksoliana. "For the sake of Ukrainian literature" / Roksolana P. Zorivchak Ukrainian Quarterly. 63.1 (Spring 2007): 33–42.

On 24 April 2006 Vera Rich, a British translator of Ukrainian literature, celebrated her 70th birthday. Born to non-Ukrainian parents, she came to be interested in Ukrainian literature while she was a student at the London School of Slavonic and East European Studies in London. The first Ukrainian poem she translated into English, according to Zorivchak, was the "Prologue" to Franko's Moisei: it was published in the London-based quarterly journal The Ukrainian Review in its first issue for 1957. Translations of Shevchenko, Franko, Lesia Ukrainka and other Ukrainian poets followed. To date, according to Zorivchak, Rich "has translated the poetry of 46 Ukrainian authors." She is also a poet in her own right and writes articles on various subjects for the British press. Zorivchak's appraisal of Vera Rich's translations from Ukrainian literature is very positive. Rich, according to Zorivchak, "never permits herself any haste, slipshod work or skating over difficulties in the text. Her translations contain virtually no examples of either "creolization" (excessive influence of the receptor culture) or, conversely, exoticism (predominance of the original culture). Rich's translations are characterized by a discipline of verse, precision of language, high poetic culture, erudition and excellent technique of versification", says Zorivchak. The author provides examples of some Rich's translations from Shevchenko and analyzes them in considerable detail.

A152. Zubrytska, Maria. "Mirrors, windows, and maps. The topology of cultural identification in contemporary Ukrainian literature." Contemporary Ukraine on the Cultural Map of Europe. Ed. by Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych and Maria G. Rewakowicz. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E Sharpe, in cooperation with the Shevchenko Scientific Society, [©2009]. 157–161.

Reprint of an article published originally in the Slavic and East European Journal, 50.3 (Fall 2006): 404–408. For annotation see A95.

A153. Bobrova, Larysa. "The "heart" as poetic metaphor in Antonych's The Grand Harmony." Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.3 (Fall 2009): 255–271.

The use by Antonych in his poetry collection Velyka harmoniia of basic conventional heart metaphors, such as "the heart is a container", "the heart is a musical instrument", "the heart is a fire" and "the heart is a field" allows the poet "to illuminate exclusively his experience of joy, love, faith and grand harmony", says Bobrova. She analyzes also Michael M. Naydan's translations of Antonych and claims that the poet's "metaphorical creativity in conveying his sensations is precisely retained in the English translation of The Grand Harmony". Bobrova's article is part of a special issue of Ukrainian Quarterly dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of Bohdan Ihor Antonych. For other contributions to this issue, see Michael M. Naydan, guest editor (cf. A165), Lidia Stefanowska (cf. A181), Viktor Neborak (cf. A167), Mykola Polyuha (cf. A175), Olha Tytarenko (cf. A183) and Mariya Tytarenko (cf. A184).

A154. Butler, Francis. "Ol'ga's conversion and the construction of Chronicle narrative." Russian Review. 67.2 (April 2008): 230–242.

An analysis of two portrayals of Princess Ol'ha, the ruler of Kyivan Rus'—the historical and the legendary. From the Byzantine point of view, Ol'ha's journey to Byzantium, the sponsorship of her baptism by the emperor, even the choice of her name, may suggest a potential incorporation of Kyivan Rus into the Christian empire ruled by Constantinople, says Butler. From the perspective of the author of Povist vremennykh lit, however, some of the historical facts of Ol'ha's baptism are embellished in order to "emphasize Ol'ga's cleverness and determination to maintain the independence of the Riurikid dynasty and of Rus"."

A155. Caudano, Anne-Laurence. "Pamvo Berynda's verses on the Nativity of Christ: Between Western education and Byzantine hymnography." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 49.1–2 (March–June 2007): 9–26.

Pamvo Berynda's collection of Christmas poems was published in Lviv in 1616. The original title is given as Na rozhestvo [sic] Hospoda Boha i spasytelia nasheho Isusa Khrysta. These poems, according to the author, were designed as an "exercise in declamation" for students and "are in fact the first traces of oral presentations in Ukraine." Caudano analyzes the contents, structure and poetic form of the collection. The main constituents of Berynda's intertext were, in her view, the Gospel and the Orthodox liturgy of the day and the original intention of these poems was "to entertain and express the joy of Christmas." The author is especially interested in discovering influences on these poems of Byzantine religious hymns and claims that Berynda's poems "bear witness to a Byzantine tradition still alive in seventeenth century Ukrainian minds."

A156. Danylenko, Andrii. "The Holy Gospels in vernacular Ukrainian: Antin Kobyljans'kyj (1874, 1877) vs. Pantelejmon Kuliš (1871)." Welt der Slaven. 55.1 (2010): 83–104. Biblio. 102–104.

A detailed linguistic comparison of two modern Ukrainian translations of the Gospels, that of Panteleimon Kulish (assisted by Ivan Puliui) published by the Bible Society in Vienna in 1871 and that of Antin Kobylians'kyi published in 1874 and 1877 in Lviv. In syntax, according to Danylenko, no major differences exist between Kobylians'kyi's and Kulish's translations, "both largely leaning on archaic (Church Slavonic) patterns..." However, says Danylenko, Kulish "was open to multidialectical borrowings with an eye to diversifying his language", while Kobylians'kyi "remained largely focused on obvious regionalisms..." Says Danylenko: "Kobyljans'kyj's translations heralded a new round in the formation of the local variety of literary language aimed at bridging a rift between the educated clergy and common parishioners in Galicia, Subcarpathian Rus" and Bukovyna."... "Based on the southeastern Ukrainian vernacular as opposed to the Russian recension of Church Slavonic ushered in by the Russian Synod decrees in the 1720's, Kuliš strived for a synthesis of the intrinsically low-style vernacular with elements picked from other territorial and functional registers, including Church Slavonic, Russian, Polish, and Galician expressions." Danylenko discusses also the reception of these translations in Western and in Eastern Ukraine, and provides a survey of other pre-modern and modern Ukrainian translations of the Bible.

A157. Fizer, John. "Ad memoriam: Vasyl" Barka (1908–2003)" / I.M. Fizer. Ukrainian Quarterly. 59.1–2 (Spring–Summer 2003): 153–154. port.

Vasyl Barka is characterized in this obituary as "an outstanding Ukrainian poet, novelist, essayist, translator and scholar." Born in the village of Solonytsi in the Poltava region of Ukraine in 1908, he died in Glen Spey, N.Y. on 11 April 2003. Barka's poetic idiom, says Fizer, was "continuously evolving from the effortlessly accessible semantics to the ever increasing metaphorically and symbolically latent discourse" . For the poet, this idiom was "a mystic language imbued with the primordial truth". Reception of Barka's poetry, according to Fizer, "required intuitive rather than strictly logical decoding."

A158. Goldblatt, Harvey. "Old approaches and new perspectives: once again on the religious significance of the Slovo o polku Igoreve" / Harvey Goldblatt and Riccardo Picchio Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 28.1–4 (2006 [©2009]): 129–154. Rus" Writ Large: Languages, Histories, Cultures. Essays presented in honor of Michael S. Flier on his sixty-fifth birthday. Ed. by Harvey Goldblatt [and] Nancy Shields Kollmann.

According to the authors, Slovo o polku Ihorevim 'should not be viewed as the heroic-epic exaltation of a valiant warrior but rather as a religious exemplum that provides an ethical and edifying message that may well be grounded in Christian teachings..." "....one is dealing with an unambiguous message of accusation and censure directed against both Prince Igor" and all others who engage in the willful and deplorable bahavior that leads to the violation of the religious and political system of Orthodox Rus'."

A159. Grabowicz, George G. "Shevchenko in critical essays of Ievhen Malaniuk." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 28.1–4 (2006 [©2009]): 441–459. Rus" Writ Large: Languages, Histories, Cultures. Essays presented in honor of Michael S. Flier on his sixty-fifth birthday. Ed. by Harvey Goldblatt [and] Nancy Shields Kollmann.

The focus of the article is on the reception of Shevchenko as reflected in Evhen Malaniuk's essays collected in his two-volume Knyha sposterezhen". Malaniuk's essays, especially the early ones, "have a pronounced, indeed programmatic, ideological orientation", says Grabowicz, since he was "espousing the new nationalist ideology of Dontsov and the journal Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk..." According to Malaniuk, "Shevchenko articulates in his poetry both a political and a national vision of and for Ukraine", he is "a national prophet and a national genius", while symbolic and mythical aspects of Shevchenko's vision of Ukraine are ignored, says Grabowicz. And yet, in Grabowicz's view, Malaniuk in his reception of Shevchenko "is more balanced, nuanced, and less unabashedly doctrinaire and propagandistic than Dontsov". "Malaniuk actually focuses on Shevchenko in an intrinsically literary way; his criticism engages the poet and his texts and his multivalent presence in the literary process", says Grabowicz, and Shevchenko emerges as "a phenomenon that deserves a critical reading".

A160. Humesky, Assya. "Shevelov's dynamic approaches to literature." Ukrainian Quarterly. 59.3–4 (Fall–Winter 2003): 264–271.

A good critic, according to Shevelov, says Humesky, "tries to grasp the uniqueness of the work, to probe its essence, and to uncover the ways in which the different components fit together. His aim is to help the author to better understand himself, and to help the reader to understand the author..." Shevelov insisted "on the critic being attuned to the author's "soul"", says Humesky. She discusses Shevelov's views on the subjectivity of criticism, on the periodicity of styles and genres as proposed by D. Chyzhevs'kyi, as well as his early theory of the so called "organically national literature" (an idea that he later discarded and considered a remnant of his youthful Soviet indoctrination). Humesky's article is based on a paper delivered at the Symposium in honor of George Y. Shevelov, at Columbia University on 2 October 1998.

A161. Karpinich, Walter. "Shevchenko and Goethe." Ukrainian Quarterly. 57.1–2 (Spring–Summer 2001): 53–63. Biblio.

An attempt to find parallels in the life and work of the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Taras Shevchenko. "In his work, Shevchenko like Goethe and other world class writers, transcends parochial limits and addresses universally relevant themes and enduring concerns and aspirations of the individual", says Karpinich. The author compares Shevchenko's and Goethe's view of the natural world, their interests in and contributions to biology, their ideas on the treatment, status and role of women in society. Karpinich claims that Shevchenko was "well acquainted with Goethe's works in circulation" and cites Goethe's poem "Wanderer's Nachtlied (über allen Gipfeln ist Ruh)" in the original, as well as in Russian and Ukrainian translations.

A162. Kononenko, Natalie. "Ukrainian ballads in Canada: Adjusting to new life in a new land." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 50.1–2 (March–June 2008): 17–36.

A study of Ukrainian Canadian folklore based on the collection of oral ballads made by Robert Bohdan Klymasz and housed in the Bohdan Medwidsky Ukrainian Folklore Archives. Kononenko analyzes the dominant themes of these ballads: they deal with the physical hardships of life in Canada, with conflicts between mothers and daughters, women and their daughters-in-law, with the absence of men who work away from home, with marital tensions, alcoholism and infidelity. Kononenko notes that magic used in ballads performed in Ukraine, is not present in Canadian-Ukrainian ballads. This, in her view, marks "a shift from a magical to a rational orientation at the grass roots level using the words of the Ukrainian Pioneers themselves." Quotations from the ballads are provided in the original Ukrainian and in the author's English translation.

A163. Lunde, Ingunn. "When the Devil quotes the Psalms: On the function of reported speech in the Tale of Boris and Gleb"." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 28.1–4 (2006 [©2009]): 225–235. Rus" Writ Large: Languages, Histories, Cultures. Essays presented in honor of Michael S. Flier on his sixty-fifth birthday. Ed. by Harvey Goldblatt [and] Nancy Shields Kollmann.

There are two hagiographic works from Kyivan Rus about the life and death of the Princes Borys and Hlib. Lunde compares the anonymous Skazaniie and the Chteniie, written by the monk Nestor and concludes that "While the text of the Skazanie is a less polished work than Nestor's Čtenie, it definitely gives the impression of a more spontaneous account, closer to the field of action and the (imagined) emotions of its participants."

A164. Myshanych, Olexa. "Revising once again the question of the authenticity of the Tale of Ihor's Campaign." Ukrainian Quarterly. 57.1–2 (Spring–Summer 2001): 91–99.

A polemic with Edward L. Keenan, whose article in Harvard Ukrainian Studies [22 (1998, rel.2000): 313–327. Cultures and Nations of Central and Eastern Europe: Essays in honor of Roman Szporluk] questions the authenticity of Slovo o polku Ihorevim. Keenan claims that Slovo o polku Ihorevim is not a medieval text, but rather the work of the Bohemian Jesuit scholar Josef Dobrovsky, composed "no earlier than August 1792". "Keenan's hypothesis is nothing but an allegation without any basis in documentary evidence", says Myshanych. To ascribe the authorship of the Slovo o polku Ihorevim to Joseph Dobrovsky, says the author, "is an idle exercise, but to allege that he forged it while suffering from insane delirium is unethical". Myshanych reviews prior researches into Slovo's authenticity, provides his own explanation of the term "saltan" (as a variant of sultan) and claims that the Chronograph containg the text of the Slovo did exist and was known to scholars before 21 August 1791, while Dobrovsky first arrived in St. Petersburg in August 1792.

A165. Naydan, Michael M. "Bohdan Ihor Antonych and the music of the night." Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.3 (Fall 2009): 166–169.

Michael M. Naydan is the guest editor of this special issue of Ukrainian Quarterly dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Bohdan Ihor Antonych. Naydan is introduced by the editors on p.165. Speaking of his translations of Antonych's poetry and of his studies of the poet's work, Naydan characterizes Antonych as "a seeker, an eternal pilgrim, a traveler on the road of life seeking answers to the seemingly unanswerable questions" and the hallmark of his poetry as "a rich style charged with astoundingly striking metaphorical constructions.". Naydan introduces the other contributors to this special issue, i.e. Lidia Stefanowska (cf. A181), Viktor Neborak (cf. A167), Mykola Polyuha (cf. A175), Olha Tytarenko (cf. A183), Mariya Tytarenko (cf. A184), and Larysa Bobrova (cf. A153). The issue includes also a biography of Antonych (1909–1937) with his portrait (pp.170–171) and a selection of Antonych's poetry in Michael Naydan's translation (pp.172–174), as follows: Musica noctis (Music of the night) (Light up the torch of the pale moon in the sky). " De morte I (On death I) (Only later I will bow my head in thought). " Liber pergrinorum 3 (Book of pilgrims 3 (Jerusalem) (The yellow road beneath my feet). " Three rings (On the wall a winged violin). " Self-portrait (Red and silver maples).

A166. Nazarenko, Tatiana. "The winding path leading to the goal: the evolution of the East European labyrinth poem." Canadian American Slavic Studies. 38.4 (Winter 2004): 375–408. illus.

Literary labyrinths, according to the author, are a form of visual poetry associated with the maze and their origin can be traced as far back as the first century BC in Rome. The labyrinth poem, says Nazarenko, "possesses both a strong visual impact and the attributes of the poetic text". Nazarenko discusses Bulgarian and Polish labyrinth poetry of the Baroque period and their influence on Ukrainian visual poetry. In the period from the 16th to the 18th century labyrinth poems in Ukraine, says Nazarenko, were composed by such authors as Ivan Velychkovs'kyi, Mytrofan Dovhalevs'kyi, Ioan Maksymovych, Lavrentii Krshchonovych, Bazyli Rudomicz, Simeon Polotskii. In contemporary literature Ukrainian labyrinth poems can be found in the writings of Mykola Soroka, Myroslav Korol, Jars Balan, as well as the Russian poet Vilen Barsky. The article is illustrated with a selection of labyrinth poems by these authors.

A167. Neborak, Viktor. "A poet's interpretation of Antonych's "The Land of the Annunciation"." / Trans. by Lilya Valihun. Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.3 (Fall 2009): 184–191.

An interpretation of the poem "Kraina Blahovishchennia (Zaviia zeleni, pozhezha zeleni)" by Bohdan Ihor Antonych in the special issue dedicated to the poet's 100th birth anniversary. According to Neborak, the "image of fire, which plays an ambiguous role in the awakening of Ukraine from a state of semi-dormancy, recurs throughout the poem. The poem can also be linked to various poems by Taras Shevchenko, through direct mention of the Ukrainian bard as well as numerous literary allusions." Neborak considers the poem a prophecy of Ukraine's awakening in flames.The poem is quoted in its entirety both in the Ukrainian original and in the English translation of Lilya Valihun. [The Land of Annunciation (A blizzard of verdure, a fire of verdure)]. For other contributions to this special Antonych issue see Michael M. Naydan, guest editor (cf. A165) , Lidia Stefanowska (cf. A181), Mykola Polyuha (cf. A175), Olha Tytarenko (cf. A183), Mariya Tytarenko (cf. A184) and Larysa Bobrova (cf. A153).

A168. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "Taras Shevchenko: his life, his poetry and his art." / Larissa Zaleska Onyshkevych. Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.1–2 (Spring–Summer 2009): 119–126.

A review article of Taras Shevchenko: Vybrana poeziia. Zhyvopys. Hrafika = Selected poems. Paintings. Graphic Works. [Kyiv: Mystetstvo, 2007. 607 p. illus.]—a bilingual Ukrainian-English luxury edition of Shevchenko's poetry and art works, edited by Serhii Hal'chenko, with introductory essays by Ivan Dziuba and Tetiana Andruschenko and English poetry translations by Vera Rich. Onyshkevych takes issue with what she calls Dziuba's " too-condensed manner", which leads, in her view, to omissions of important relevant facts of Ukraine's history and of some data of Shevchenko's life and ancestry. Onyshkevych thinks highly of Vera Rich's translations, and notes the translator's "Britishisms" as well as her "purposely chosen archaisms", which, in Onyshkevych's view, "provide a sense of distance in time and a feel for a "higher" rather than colloquial language."

A169. Ostrowski, Donald. "The account of Volodimer's conversion in the Povest" vremennykh let: a chiasmus of stories." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 28.1–4 (2006 ['2009]): 567–580. Rus" Writ Large: Languages, Histories, Cultures. Essays presented in honor of Michael S. Flier on his sixty-fifth birthday. Ed. by Harvey Goldblatt [and] Nancy Shields Kollmann.

There are four distinct stories involving five different traditions about the conversion to Christianity of Prince Volodymyr of Kyiv, says Ostrowski. It is now generally accepted, according to the author, that the account given in the Povist vremennykh lit "is mostly a literary invention." The combining of these conflicting traditions, however, "does tell us something about the literary skill of Sil'vestr as the compiler of the PVL," says Ostrowski.

A170. Ostrowski, Donald. "The application of biblical exegesis to the study of Rus" Chronicles." Medieval Slavonic Studies: New Perspectives for Research. Ed. by Juan Antonio Alvarez-Pedrosa and Susana Torres Prieto. Paris: Institut d'etudes slaves, 2009. (Collection historique de l'Institut d'etudes slaves, 43) 169–191. Abbreviations, Works cited: 188–191.

Researchers familiar with biblical exegesis, according to Ostrowski, can provide many methodological insights for the study of medieval chronicles [litopysy] of Kyivan Rus" and especially for the study of Povist vremennykh lit.

A171. Papazian, Elisabeth A. "Offscreen dreams and collective synthesis in Dovzhenko's Earth." Russian Review. 62.3 (July 2003): 411–428. illus.

Oleksandr Dovzhenko's film Zemlia might have had "ostensible propaganda mission in the interest of collectivization", says Papazian, but even Soviet critics sensed the film's "ideological failures". Says Papazian about the film: "It is my contention that Dovzhenko uses offscreen space, along with a related technique of "unreported speech" to allude to a utopian vision; the presence of the utopian impulse is also revealed in a striving toward visual and thematic synthesis. The nature of this utopia and its relation to the Soviet project, however, is rendered ambiguous and must be revealed by the viewer."

A172. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Literary canons and national identities in contemporary Ukraine." Canadian American Slavic Studies. 40.1 (Spring 2006): 5–19.

Literary canons have a considerable influence upon national identity, on the values and attitudes of readers. Pavlyshyn examines two types of literary canons in contemporary Ukraine. The first such canon, which he calls "iconostasis", displays, says the author, "continuity with both the nineteenth-century populist canon and, in most matters other than ideology, the canon of Socialist Realism, while openly promoting a national identity orientated toward the reinforcement of the Ukrainian nation-state." In connection with this first canon Pavlyshyn discusses the role of the Writers" Union of Ukraine, the cult of Oles Honchar, and the phenomenon of the "writers of the sixties". The second or the new canon is characterized by Pavlyshyn, as modernist or postmodernist. It is, according to the author, indifferent or even opposed to a partisan national identity. The Bu-Ba-Bu group and particularly Iurii Andrukhovych are discussed as examples of the new attitudes. Pavlyshyn, however, detects "a modicum of deception" in the refusal of the new canon writers "to participate in the project of developing a national identity": their stand could be interpreted as an invitation to a different Ukrainian culture, one viewed as "dynamic, multifarious, multicultural, and aesthetically challenging."

A173. Petrovsky-Shtern, Yohanan. "The Construction of an improbable identity: the case of Hryts'ko Kernerenko." Ab imperio. 1 (2005): 191–240. illus.

Hryts'ko Kernerenko (real name in Hebrew and Yiddish: Hirsch ben Borukh Kerner, in Ukrainian: Hryhorii Borysovych Kerner) was the first known Ukrainian poet of Jewish descent. He was born in 1863 in Huliai-pole in a wealthy Jewish family, graduated from Simferopol gymnasium (high school) and then from a polytechnic college in Munich, Germany. After travelling for some time in Europe, he returned to Huliai-pole , where he managed his own estate. He published four books of Ukrainian poetry (Nevelychkyi zbirnyk tvoriv (1890), Shchetynnyk (1891), V dosuzhyi chas (1894), Menty natkhnennia (1910). He was also the author of a tale Pravdyva kazka (1886), of an unpublished play "Liubov pevna—kara temna" (whose stage presentation was prohibited by Russian censors), and of Ukrainian translations from Yiddish, German and Russian poetry. Petrovsky-Shtern provides a survey of Kernerenko's life and work and of the critical receptions of his poetry. According to Petrovsky-Shtern, nothing is known about Kernerenko's life after 1910. The author characterizes Kernerenko's subject matter as love poetry, depiction of Ukraine as "a utopian country of redemption and lofty freedom", and of Shevchenko "as the Messiah of the Ukrainians.", and later also poetry on Jewish themes. Kernerenko" work was published in such Ukrainian periodicals as Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk, Ukrains'ka khata, Hromads'ka dumka, Rada and in some anthologies of poetry. Kernerenko's work attracted the attention of such Ukrainian writers and critics as Ivan Franko, Mykhailo Komarov, Pavlo Hrabovs'kyi, Mykola Yevshan, Serhii Iefremov, Khrystia Al'chevs'ka, Mykyta Shapoval, Bohdan Lepkyi and more recently Anatol Hak, Petro Rebro, Ihor Kachurov'skyi. Many of Kernerenko's critics, according to Petrovsky-Shtern, "held a low opinion of his poetic talents", some accused him of an "art for art's sake" mentality and "negligence toward contemporary empiric reality". And yet, says the author, "Kernerenko continued polishing his Ukrainian language, construing his Ukrainian imagery, attempting a Ukrainian-Jewish concoction, bringing his Ukrainian books to press, establishing contacts with Ukrainian literary figures, and hoping, against all odds, that his literary creativity and social stance would merit either acceptance or sympathy." Petrovsky-Shtern's article is supplemented by Kernerenko's poetry and poetic translations on pp.241–248, his letters (one of which is a facsimile of a handwritten text) on pp. 249–252—all in the original Ukrainian.

A174. Petrovsky-Shtern, Yohanan. "The new Moses: a Ukrainian-Jewish poet in the making." East European Jewish Affairs. 34.1 (Summer 2004): 12–28.

Moisei Fishbein is—in the words of Petrovsky-Shtern—"a Ukrainian poet conscious of his Jewishness". Born on 1 December 1946 in Chernivtsi and educated in Kyiv, Fishbein lived for a while in Israel and now resides in Germany. He is the author of several books of poetry and prose (Iambove kolo, Zbirka bez nazvy, Dyvnyi sad, Apokryf, Rozporosheni tini, Aferyzmy, Ranii rai et al.) A member of the National Association of Writers of Ukraine, he is ?lso the laureate of the Vasyl Stus Prize. The author surveys the reception of Fishbein's poetry by some Ukrainian critics, citing George Y. Shevelov who considered Fishbein "a post-neoclassic poet" and praised "the uniqueness of his poetic voice", Maksym Strikha who wrote about Fishbein's "Ukrainian linguistic virtuosity" and Vadym Skurativskyi who praised Fishbein's "perfect Ukrainian acoustics" and noted, that "for the first time in history, Judaism speaks Ukrainian." In providing his own characterization of the poet, Petrovsky-Shtern writes about Fishbein's "metaphysical imagery and a tragic world view", his messianism which is "an integral element of his literary endeavors, his daily practice, and his self-parody" and his belief in the Ukrainian language as the supreme value, as a guarantor of statehood and independence. Fishbein sees himself, according to Petrovsky-Shtern, "not as a regular Ukrainian poet of Jewish descent, but as a "Jewish messiah" sent to Ukraine." He is unlike some other Ukrainian-Jewish poets (such as Sava Holovanivs'kyi or Naum Tykhyi) who—according to Petrovsky-Shtern— 'adopted a Ukrainian identity while conveniently eliminating their Jewish one. In Fishbein's case, the Jewish and Ukrainian motifs inform a complex poetic image that is more subtle than a mere combination of "the Jewish" and "the Ukrainian'"... "The soul of the poet absorbs Kyiv and Jerusalem alike, but preserves their integrity." The article is interspersed with excerpts of Fishbein's poetry in Petrovsky-Shtern's translation.

A175. Polyuha, Mykola. "Apolitical poetry as politics: The political writings of Antonych." Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.3 (Fall 2009): 192–212.

"Antonych did not directly express his political ideas", says Polyuha, but "a close reading of his poetry, nevertheless, reveals his political positions." In an attempt to explain the ban of Antonych's works in Soviet Ukraine, Polyuha discusses Antonych's biography, the poet's independence from political organizations, the formal and structural features of his poetry, and the three poems from the collection Knyha leva, i.e. "Slovo do rozstrilianykh" (A word for the executed), "Slovo pro chornyi polk" (A word about a black regiment) and "Slovo pro zolotyi polk" (A word about a golden regiment), all three of which, according to Polyuha, have "metonymic political messages", and express the poet's humanism. Fragments from the three poems are cited in the author's own translations. Polyuha's article is part of a special issue of the Ukrainian Quarterly dedicated to Antonych's 100th birth anniversay. For other contributions to this special issue, see Michael M. Naydan, the guest editor (cf. A165), Lidia Stefanowska (cf. A181), Viktor Neborak (cf. A167), Olha Tytarenko (cf. A183), Mariya Tytarenko (cf. A184) and Larysa Bobrova (cf. A153).

A176. Prymak, Thomas M. "In memoriam: Bohdan Budurowycz (1921–2007). Canadian Slavonic Papers. 49.1–2 (March–June 2007): 5–7. port.

Bohdan Budurowycz (born 8 September 1921 in Ukraine, died in Toronto 8 March 2007) was Professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of Toronto until his retirement at the end of the 1980's. In this tribute to his mentor Prymak characterizes Budurowycz as one who was "by character and taste much more a librarian than a teacher" despite the popularity of the courses he taught. Budorowycz was the author of Polish-Soviet Relations, 1932–1939 (published in 1963) and of Slavic and East European Resources in Canadian Academic and Research Libraries (published in 1976).

A177. Rudnytzky, Nicholas G. "Lazar Baranovych: a cultural navigator caught in the tides of history." Ukrainian Quarterly. 64.3–4 (Fall–Winter 2008): 191–199.

The 17th century churchman and writer Lazar Baranovych is characterized by the author as "poet, preacher and archbishop" who "authored several polemical works aimed at Catholicism, a collection of poems, sermons and a large body of correspondence". The focus of the article, however, is on the political role of Baranovych as "a key figure in the transition of the Orthodox Church in Ukraine from Ukrainian to Muscovite control."

A178. Sereda, Ostap. "From church-based to cultural nationalism: early Ukrainophiles, ritual-purification movement and emerging cult of Taras Shevchenko in Austrian Eastern Galicia in the 1860's." Canadian American Slavic Studies. 40.1 (Spring 2006): 21–47.

The Greek Catholic Church in Austrian-ruled Galicia of the 19th century was the most important symbol of the population's Ruthenian identity. According to Sereda, it was only gradually that "Ukrainian cultural nationalism" superseded "the more traditional Ruthenian church-based nationalism". An important role in this process was played by the ritual-purification movement whose aim was to stop and reverse the Latinization of the ritual practices promoted by the Polish Roman Catholic church. The influx of Ukrainian publications from the Russian empire in the early 1860's as well as requiem masses sponsored by the ritual-purification movement after the death of Shevchenko, says Sereda, led eventually to the establishment of a new tradition of Shevchenko commemorative evenings and strengthened the Ukrainophile orientation in Galicia.

A179. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "A change of heart: Iurii Klen's "Adventures of the Archangel Raphael." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 51.4 (December 2009): 513–523.

Iurii Klen was a Ukrainian poet of German origin. His real name was Oswald Burghardt. He was born 4 October 1891 in Serbynivtsi, Podillia gubernia in Ukraine and died 30 October 1947 in Augsburg, West Germany. Shkandrij traces Klen's ideological evolution from "his adherence to Mykola Zerov's neoclassicism" in the 1920's, through "Faustian voluntarism" of Dmytro Dontsov's Vistnyk in the 1930's, to his return to neoclassicism and rejection of Dontsov's ideology in the 1940's. His short story "Pryhody Arkhanhela Rafaila" written shortly before his death demonstrates clearly, according to Shkandrij, Klen's "change of heart" and can be read both as "a rejection of the radical social and cultural experimentation of Bolshevism and Stalin's rule", as well as "a rejection of Nazism." Shkandrij analyzes the short story in detail, stressing its connections to the Christian worldview and says of the author's evolution: "Klen began by supporting the ideals of Christian humanism and of cultural education based on a knowledge of classical authors. He moved in the thirties and early forties to extolling heroic myths of conquest in line with Dontsov's desires, and ended by reaffirming an outlook of Christian tolerance and classical restraint."

A180. Soroka, Mykola. "Travel and Ukrainian literary modernism." Canadian Slavonic Papers. 49.3–4 (September–December 2007): 323–347.

Travel writing, according to Soroka, can be seen as an "important aspect of Ukrainian modernism." For writers who were able to travel outside of their own country, travel experience provided opportunities for "escape, detachment, adventure, exoticism, and discovery", as well as "intellectual growth and cultural contacts", new impressions, and "a sense of freedom". Soroka's focus is on four Ukrainian writers: Petro Karmans'kyi, Lesia Ukrainka, Mykhailo Kotsiubyns'kyi and Volodymyr Vynnychenko. Karmans'kyi studied in Italy, traveled in Austria, Canada and Brazil. Italy, especially, had a profound influence on his creativity and his worldview and there are many references to Italy in his poetry and prose, says Soroka. Lesia Ukrainka's journeys in search of medical treatment took her to Austria and Germany, to Egypt, Crimea, and the Caucasus. Her impressions and comments are well documented in her correspondence and are reflected in her dramatic poems. Kotsiubyns'kyi's sojourns in Italy, Moldova, Crimea and the Carpathian mountains in the Austro-Hungarian empire supplied him with topics for a great number of his major works.... "in speaking about the exotic, [Kotsiubyns'kyi] also speaks about the universal by imbuing his literary material with deep philosophical reflections", says Soroka. Unilike the other three writers, Vynnychenko was a professional revolutionary and an exile. and was involved in "migr" political activity. He travelled throughout Europe and expanded his intellectual horizons through education, but only a few of his works have exotic foreign settings—they reflect cosmopolitan international Bohemian life and discuss new international trends in modernist art and literature. The perspective of a displaced exile, according to Soroka, helped Vynnychenko to identify the colonial status of Ukraine.

A181. Stefanowska, Lidia. "Antonych: the mythologization of reality." / Trans. by Michael M. Naydan. Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.3 (Fall 2009): 175–183.

Antonych's "poetic analysis of cosmic as well as biological hierophanies ...permits a coming closer to an understanding of the interrelationships of the cosmos with the material existence of the earth", says Stefanowska. She speaks of "imagistic and formal antimonies, existential and metaphysical oppositions" in Antonych's poetry, of "constant tension between vision and construction", of "mythological symbolism"—all of which contribute to the poetry's "extraordinary poetic beauty." The protagonist of Antonych's poetry "does not feel a threat from the cosmic and natural forces, but, to the contrary, experiences a deep connection with that reality..." According to Stefanowska, "One can understand the creative works of Antonych as a dream about a cosmic order that is benevolent for a person, the dream of a skeptic, agitated by the vision of catastrophe." For other contributions to this special issue of Ukrainian Quarterly dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Antonych, see Michael Naydan, guest editor (cf.A165), (Viktor Neborak (cf. A167), Mykola Polyuha (cf.A175), Olha Tytarenko (cf. A183), Mariya Tytarenko (cf. A184) and Larysa Bobrova (cf. A153).

A182. Timberlake, Alan. "The recovery narrative of Gleb." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 28.1–4 (2006 [©2009]): 329–339. Rus" Writ Large: Languages, Histories, Cultures. Essays presented in honor of Michael S. Flier on his sixty-fifth birthday. Ed. by Harvey Goldblatt [and] Nancy Shields Kollmann.

The author dicusses the possibility that Skazanie, a medieval hagiographic text about the life and martyred death of Princes Borys and Hlib might have used the Bohemian Wenceslas legends as a model.

A183. Tytarenko, Olha. "The paganism in Antonych's Thee Rings: return or escape?" Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.3 (Fall 2009): 213–226.

The author analyzes Antonych's collection of poetry Try persteni published in 1934. Here, in his poetry, according to Tytarenko, Antonych "comprehends a new realm of existence outside his time and space", he creates his own golden age, a mythical reconstruction of childhood, as well as a lost paradise of the natural primordial world, a lost utopia "to which the poetic persona escapes from adult reality." Fragments from Antonych's poetry are quoted in the original Ukrainian and in Michael Naydan's English translations.This article is part of a special issue of Ukrainian Quarterly dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of Bohdan Ihor Antonych. For other contributions to this issue, see Michael M. Naydan, the guest editor (cf. A165), Lidia Stefanowska (cf. A181), Viktor Neborak (cf. A167), Mykola Polyuha (cf. A175), Mariya Tytarenko (cf. A184), and Larysa Bobrova (cf. A153).

A184. Tytarenko, Mariya. "Cordocentrism in the poetry of Antonych: the metaphysics of harmony." Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.3 (Fall 2009): 227–254.

The author traces images of the heart in Antonych's poetry, includes a content analysis, comparing the uses of the word "heart" in various Antonych's collections, and claims that the heart in Antonych's poetry appears in four different categories: as a thing-in-itself, as "a place where God abides", as a mediator between the poet and the world, and as a lyrical hero. The role of the heart in Antonych's poetry, says Tytarenko, "comprises the cornerstone of his conception of the macro- and microcosmos depicted in his oeuvre." Quotations of poetry appear both in the original Ukrainian and in Michael M. Naydan's English translation. This article appears in the special issue of Ukrainian Quarterly dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Antonych. For other contributions in this issue see Michael M. Naydan, guest editor (cf. A165), Lidia Stefanowska (cf. A181), Viktor Neborak (cf. A167), Mykola Polyuha (cf. A175), Olha Tytarenko (cf. A183) and Larysa Bobrova (cf. A153).

A185. Vereecken, Jeannine. "Jaroslavna, voice of the Russian earth; a contribution to the interpretation of the Igor Tale." Russian Literature. 66.4 (15 November 2009): 483–499.

The leading female character of Slovo o polku Ihorevim ?s interpreted by the author in a mythological and symbolical way. "Plach Iaroslavny" is analyzed as a magical incantation and Iaroslavna is characterized as the "personification of the Russian Mother Earth." The article includes 26 lines of "Plach Iaroslavny" in the author's own translation on pp. 486–487.

A186. Yekelchyk, Serhy. "No laughing matter: state regimentation of Ukrainian humor and satire under high Stalinism (1943–1953)." Canadian American Slavic Studies. 40.1 (Spring 2006): 79–99.

An examination of the role of laughter and joking in Soviet culture during the last decade of Stalin's rule. "While Stalinist functionaries sought to hold back all satirical representations of the Soviet system, they were particularly wary of a dangerous connection between literary humor and street folklore," says Yekelchyk. The author focuses on the role of Perets, the Ukrainian magazine of satire and humor, and on the preeminent Ukrainian humorist of the time Ostap Vyshnia. Both Perets and Vyshnia were at various times subjects of party criticism and had to conform to what was considered to be acceptable laughter. In general, says Yekelchyk, satire was to be directed at foreign topics, while Soviet reality was to be treated with friendly humor.

A187. Zhivov, Viktor. "The Igor Tale from the perspective of cultural history." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 28.1–4 (2006 [©2009]): 353–362. Rus" Writ Large: Languages, Histories, Cultures. Essays presented in honor of Michael S. Flier on his sixty-fifth birthday. Ed. by Harvey Goldblatt [and] Nancy Shields Kollmann.

In his attempt to reconcile the uniqueness of Slovo o polku Ihorevim "with the idea of a flourishing court culture", Zhivov suggests that the original form of Slovo was most probably oral. "It is not clear whether the Tale was ever actually sung by a court bard in its entirety or there were several (say, two or three) separate oral texts (songs) closely related to each other and combined into a single text by a transcriber..."

A188. Zyla, Wolodymyr T. "Shakespeare's sonnets in Ukrainian translation" / Volodymyr T. Zyla. Ukrainian Quarterly. 59.3–4 (Fall–Winter 2003): 293–300.

A review article of William Shakespeare's sonnets issued in a parallel text edition with the originals in English and Ostap Tarnavs'kyi's translations into Ukrainian. (Philadelphia: Mosty, 1997. 321 p.). Zyla provides a survey of Ukrainian translations of Shakespeare's sonnets, analyzes Tarnavskyi's translations, especially of sonnets CIV, CXVI, XVIII, and concludes that Tarnavs'kyi's translations "are accurate with Shakespeare's originals, they sound Shakespearean, and they give a true picture of the Shakespearean reality and ideas." Quotations from the sonnets are given in the original and in a transliterated version of Ukrainian translations (Sonnet XVIII, in Zyla's view, "the closest to the original...as regards imagery and the transference of content" is quoted in its entirety).

A189. Bondarevska, Iryna. "The concept of the baroque in the works of Dmytro Chyzhevsky." / Iryna Bondarevska and Larysa Dovha. Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.2 (Winter 2007): 1–20.

"...every epoch is marked by a specific mentality... that informs all spheres of cultural life..." and "we must try to approximate as closely as possible the understanding of past events that was characteristic of those living at the time" say the authors and claim that Chyzhevs'ky? "devoted most of his works on cultural history to substantiating and clarifying this theory..." According to Bondarevska and Dovha, Chyzhevs'ky?'s treatment of historicism is "oriented toward a concept of style borrowed from art history but interpreted more broadly as a fundamental feature of a period." "Every epoch has its own visage, its own character, its style," says Chyzhevs'ky? and follows the Swiss art scholar's Heіnrich Wölfflin’s original concept by studying the baroque as a cultural style. "The greatest conceptual achievement of Chyzhevsky's research on the Ukrainian baroque", say the authors, "is his structuralist analysis of texts, both literary and philosophical... which promotes dispassionate scholarly discourse as the only reliable basis for the study of culture." This essay is part of a special issue of the J?urnal of Ukrainian Studies devoted to Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. For other contributions see Roman Mnich (A194), Maria Vasilieva (A206), Werner Korthaase (A191), Maryna Tkachuk (A204) and Iryna Valiavko (A205).

A190. Kipa, Albert A. "Introduction to a 'Natural Epic'" / Albert A. Kipa and Leonid Rudnytzky. Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.4 (Winter 2009): 293–298.

The article introduces a new translation of the Slovo o polku Ihorevim prepared by Albert A. Kipa and Leonid Rudnytzky and published under the title "The Lay of Ihor's Campaign, Ihor, Son of Svyatoslav, Grandson of Oleh" on pp.299–323 of the same issue. The authors discuss the reasons for a new translation, such as the need to illuminate the Ukrainian aspect of the work, its "strong, unmitigated cautions about statehood" and the ecocritical examination of "human interaction with nature". They discuss also the historical background of the medieval tale, its authorship and the classification of its genre, as well as the history of the manuscript itself.

A191. Korthaase, Werner. "Dmytro Chyzhevsky as a Comenius Scholar." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.2 (Winter 2007): 47–72.

Comenius or Jan Amos Komensky (1592–1670) was, in Korthaase's view, a significant figure in European intellectual history. Chyzhevs'kyi's works about Comenius, says Korthaase, have been mostly ignored by scholars, and yet they are groundbreaking studies and Chyzhevs'kyi himself regarded them as his "crowning scholarly achievements". This article is part of a special issue of the Journal of Ukrainian Studies devoted to Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. For other contributions see Iryna Bondarevska (A189), Roman Mnich (A194), Maria Vasilieva (A206), Maryna Tkachuk (A204), and Iryna Valiavko (A205).

A192. Liber, George O. "Re-assessing Dovzhenko's black holes." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 31.1–2 (Summer–Winter 2006): 149–171.

Review article of Roman Korohods'kyi's book Dovzhenko v poloni. Rozvidky ta esei pro maistra (Kyiv: Helikon, 2000, 352 p.). Liber considers Korohods'kyi "one of the most prominent critics of the Soviet interpretation of Dovzhenko's life", praises the author for his openness and his "courage in raising difficult questions and accepting unpleasant answers", but takes issue with some of Korohods'kyi's statements (e.g. Dovzhenko as a member of the Borotbists) and his acceptance of the veracity of Dovzhenko's 1939 autobiography.

A193. Mikhailova, Yulia. "Cross kissing: keeping one's word in twelfth-century Rus'" / Yulia Mikhailova and David K. Prestel. Slavic Review. 70.1 (Spring 2011): 1–22.

Kissing of the cross, according to the authors, was considered a sacred obligation of the rulers of Kyivan Rus" and oaths made on the cross were trusted as valid agreements or treaties. Cross kissing, say Mikhailova and Prestel, was "the centerpiece of a system of public order established more on the basis of norms than of institutions." The article is based on medieval monuments of Kyivan Rus", such as "Ipatiivskyi litopys", " Pouchenie ditiam" by Prince Volodymyr Monomakh, "Povist vremennykh lit" and "Slovo o kniaziakh".

A194. Mnich, Roman. "Ernst Cassirer and Dmytro Chyzhevsky: an instance of Cassirer's reception among the Slavs." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.2 (Winter 2007): 21–32.

Ernst Cassirer (1874–1945) was a German philosopher whose greatest achievement, according to Mnich, "was the creation of a new concept of the European philosophy of culture." Chyzhevs'kyi, like Cassirer, "inclined toward a cultural approach in the study of literature and even philosophy," says Mnich. Chyzhevs'kyi read Cassirer's works, wrote about them and there are many parallels between the two scholars and similarities in their views, especially in their philosophy of symbolic forms. Mnich's essay is part of a special issue of the Journal of Ukrainian Studies devoted to Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. For other contributions see Iryna Bondarevska (A189), MariaVasilieva (A206), Werner Korthaase (A191), Maryna Tkachuk (A204) and IrynaValiavko (A205).

A195. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Choice of context, negotiation of identity: Olha Kobylyanska." Australian Slavonic and East European Studies. 16.1–2 (2002): 183–208.

Pavlyshyn examines published and unpublished German and Ukrainian works, notebooks, letters and diary of Ol'ha Kobylians'ka in order to trace the process of "her national self-identification", a process that, in Pavlyshyn's words "accompanied her self-definition as an individual human being, a woman, an intellectual and a writer." For young Koblians'ka, says Pavlyshyn, German was the language for social interaction and intellectual activity: it is not surprising that her early works were in German. He discusses her interest in feminism, Darwinism and the writings of Nietzsche—all of which are reflected in her German articles and literary works. However, "her foray into German literature was unsuccessful", says Pavlyshyn. Her conscious decision to start writing in Ukrainian, on the other hand, was met with positive reception of Ukrainian public. "On the whole," says Pavlyshyn, "Kobylyanska was understood by her Ukrainian critics much as she indicated that she wished to be: as an intellectual commenting on general issues, especially the situation of women, and as an artist working at a high level of aesthetic accomplishment with paradigms not conventional in Ukrainian literature to achieve an independent and noteworthy formulation of her world-experience."

A196. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Literary politics vs. literature: Ukrainian debates in the 1990s." Soviet and Post-Soviet Review. 28.1–2 (2001 [2002]: 147–155.

A literary work in the USSR, says Pavlyshyn, was assumed to be "a more or less direct vehicle for political communication". Critics of Soviet literature in the West also interpreted Soviet literary works as "responses to political stimuli". In independent Ukraine of the 1990's , according to Pavlyshyn, there continues to be a desire "for literature to function as politics under another name" and even "literary life that conceives of itself as anti-traditional involuntarily lapses into a new kind of literary politics". Ukrainian writers are expected to "promote Ukrainian state-and-nation building", younger writers who rebel against excessive institutionalization of literature end up forming another literary institution, critical examination of the literary canon ends up in "literary petty politics", etc. etc. Pavlyshyn sees attempts to move away from politics in some new prose published in journals and in such works as Izdryk's Votstsek.

A197. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Literary travel: Ukrainian journeys toward the national and the modern." Australian Slavonic and East European Studies. 23.1–2 (2009): 1–18.

Pavlyshyn discusses "the journey as a topos in texts of Ukrainian culture", particularly in the travel writing of Taras Shevchenko, Anatolii Svydnyts'kyi, Panas Myrnyi, Ivan Nechui-Levyts'kyi and Maik Iohansen. According to Pavlyshyn, the topos of the journey "helped structure a kind of human identity (with ethnic, territorial and cultural components)...", "it promoted an emancipatory social and political program" (by "implied comparisons with an idealised Europe"), pointing out at the same time certain dangers of Eurocentric development.

A198. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Modern literature and the construction of national identity as European: The case of Ukraine." Domains and Divisions of European History. Ed. by Johann P. Arnason and Natalie J. Doyle. [Liverpool]: Liverpool University Press [©2010]. (Studies in social and political thought, 18). 181–197. Biblio. 195–197.

Ukrainian national literature is defined here as "a literature functioning within and for a community that is, actually or potentially, a modern nation..." In the case of Ukraine, it began with the publication in 1798 of Ivan Kotliarevs'kyi's Eneida. This work defined also the national literary system as European by expressing common European values of the era of the Enlightenment, classicist poetics and the use of the vernacular language. European tradition established by Kotliarevs'kyi was continued. There were, however, other voices, too. Taras Shevchenko, according to Pavlyshyn, "made a case for a national authenticity that was not European, Europe being for him so complicit in Russia's colonial project that it deserved only condemnation and sarcasm". Dependence upon Europe, on the one hand, and resistance to Europe, on the other, according to Pavlyshyn, are visible divisions in contemporary Ukrainian literature, with writers such as Iurii Andrukhovych and Iurii Izdryk favoring the European orientation, and Valerii Shevchuk, Ievhen Pashkovs'kyi, Viacheslav Medvid", Oles" Ulianenko and Serhii Zhadan focusing on the local and the native and rejecting the European values.

A199. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "The new obscurity: Adventures in contemporary Ukrainian literature." Die Lektüre der Welt=Worlds of Reading. On the theory, history and sociology of cultural practice. Festschrift for Walter Veit. Ed. by Helmut Heinze and Christiane Weller, in co-op. with Heinz Kreutz. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang [©2004]. (Forschungen zur Literatur- und Kulturgeschichte, Bd.74). 445–451.

Obscurity in literature can be defined as diminished intelligibility—a consequence of particular ways of how an author uses his language. Obscurity in contemporary Ukrainian literature, according to Pavlyshyn, is used by four categories of writers: 1/ the neopopulists, like Ievhen Pashkovs'kyi and Viacheslav Medvid", whose prose, says Pavlyshyn, "is presented as as unvarnished thought or speech in its scarcely intelligible or unintelligible particularity, with "authentic" irrationality and "authentic" non-standard and non-literary linguistic forms"; 2/ rebels against the realist tradition, like Mykhailo Osadchyi whose Cataract, says Pavlyshyn, includes features such as the "Joycean stream of consciousness", "echoes of Freudian psychoanalysis" and "verbal equivalents of cubist imagery"; 3/ writers who "claim to address philosophical issues in a profound way", like Iurii Izdryk whose prose work Votstsek, according to Pavlyshyn, "invokes existentialist, Christian and poststructuralist thought" and Volodymyr Ieshkiliev, "a philosophically erudite young writer....close to carnivalesque postmodernists"; and, finally, the 4/category—writers who "engage in parody", Ieshkiliev partly belongs to this group as does Viktor Neborak whose "impeccably obscure poem" "Mif pro Prometeia" and its author's explication of the text is cited by Pavlyshyn as "a philologically well-informed spoof upon the notion of exegesis and the ambition to uncover "real" meaning."

A200. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "The Rhetoric of geography in Ukrainian literature, 1991–2005." Ukraine, the EU and Russia: history, culture and international relations. Ed. by Stephen Velychenko. [New York]: Palgrave Macmillan [2007]. (Studies in Central and Eastern Europe). 89–107. Bibliography: 106–107.

In the USSR the historical, political and cultural rhetoric was oriented toward Moscow. In independent Ukraine, according to Pavlyshyn, there are "two competing spatial rhetorics", one with a severely local focus, the other oriented towards the West. Much of the anticolonial literary writing of the 1980's and 1990's, says Pavlyshyn, "rested on the evocation of the physical domain of the nation as an autarkic, centered, autonomous and self-sufficient space". The most prominent writer of this orientation is, in Pavlyshyn's view, Valerii Shevchuk, whose native city, Zhytomyr, is treated in many of his works as "a microcosm of the world." Other writers with the local focus discussed are Ievhen Pashkovs'kyi, Viacheslav Medvid", Oles" Ulianenko and Serhii Zhadan. Representatives of the Western orientation are mostly writers from Western Ukraine. Pavlyshyn analyzes in some detail selected works of Iurii Andrukhovych and mentions briefly Iurii Vynnnychuk, Iurii Izdryk, Volodymyr Ieshkiliev and Taras Prokhas'ko. Attention is paid also to the feminist writings of Ievheniia Kononenko and her "resentment of the West", and to the Russian-language writing of Andrei Kurkov, who, according to Pavlyshyn, "does not confer any special meaning upon the familiar connection between Ukraine and Russia, thereby decoupling the Russian language from its colonizing role."

A201. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Writing in Ukraine and European identity before 1798." Australian Slavonic and East European Studies. 21.1–2 (2007) : 125–142.

The publication in 1798 of Ivan Kotliarevs'kyi's travesty of Virgil's Aeneid in Ukrainian began a new era in Ukrainian culture which became "part of the modern secular culture shared by educated people throughout Europe", says Pavlyshyn. Europe, however, was invoked in Ukraine centuries prior to Kotliarevs'kyi, according to Pavlyshyn, in panegyrical writing, as a geographic concept, as a "space across which are shared certain political objectives and values", as a common civilization identified mostly with Christianity, and as common genesis of European peoples.

A202. Rudnytzky, Leonid. "Eros and ambiguity in Ukrainian literature: the case of Ivan Franko (1856–1916)." Confessions of Love: the ambiguities of Greek Eros and Latin Caritas. Ed. by Craig J.N. de Paulo et al. New York: Peter Lang [©2011]. (American university studies. Series 7: Theology and religion, v.310): 113–139. Notes: 135–139.

"Plato's concept of Eros as an aquisitive love... informs Franko's lyrical poetry, especially his Zivyale lystya..." "Eros, as an intensely subjective act of human spirit, also makes its presence felt in Franko's prose..." says Rudnytzky. He examines in some detail the story "Lesyshyna cheliad", but then focuses on Franko's long narrative poem "Ivan Vyshens'kyi" where, in his view, "ambiguity reaches its zenith". Despite its title, however, the article covers much more than Ivan Franko and his works. By way of introduction the first pages discuss the literature of Kyivan Rus, including the chronicles and the Slovo o polku Ihorevim, as well as "eros and ambiguity" in the works of Kotliarevs'kyi and Shevchenko, while the concluding pages are devoted to contemporary writing where, in the author's view, "Eros became unbound; it lost its Platonic character and, in many works, acquired pornographic features." In this context the author characterizes briefly the works of Iurii Andrukhovych, Viktor Neborak, Oleksandr Irvanets', Oksana Zabuzhko and Valerii Shevchuk. The article is interspersed with translated brief quotations of poetry by Ivan Kotliarevs'kyi, Ivan Franko, and Maksym Ryl's'kyi.

A203. Tarnawsky, Marta. "The search for common ground." Ukrainian Quarterly. 65.4 (Winter 2009): 382–387.

A review article of Myroslav Shkandrij's book Jews in Ukrainian Literature: Representation and Identity. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. xiv, 265 pp.). The book is characterized as "a very important and most welcome pioneering study that should open the door to future publications."

A204. Tkachuk, Maryna. "Dmytro Chyzhevsky and the tradition of Ukrainian 'Cordology'." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.2 (Winter 2007): 73–82.

The so called philosophy of the heart has become very popular in post-Soviet Ukrainian studies; there are many publications devoted to Ukrainian cordocentrism, says Tkachuk, and many of them draw inspiration from Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi's history of philosophy in Ukraine. Imitators of Chyzhevs'kyi, however, "lost sight of his cautions about the hypothetical nature of his characterizations of the Ukrainian national world view," says Tkachuk. This essay is part of a special issue of the Journal of Ukrainian Studies devoted to Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. For other contributions see Iryna Bondarevska (A189), Roman Mnich (A194), Maria Vasilieva (A206), Werner Korthaase (A191) and Iryna Valiavko (A205).

A205. Valiavko, Iryna. "The legacy of Dmytro Chyzhevsky in Ukraine: reconstruction, research, prospects and tasks." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.2 (Winter 2007): 83–97.

Works of Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi were banned in Soviet Ukraine during the scholar's lifetime. In independent Ukraine, however, from early 1990's on, Chyzhevs'kyi's scholarly legacy in philosophy, comparative literature, intellectual history are being republished and studied. Valiavko provides a critical survey of Chyzhevs'kyi's works and studies about him published recently in Ukraine with a focus on Chyzhevskyi's contributions to Ukrainian studies. This article is part of a special issue of the Journal of Ukrainian Studies devoted to Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. For other contributions see Iryna Bondarevska (A189), Roman Mnich (A194), Maria Vasilieva (A206), Werner Korthaase (A191), and Maryna Tkachuk (A204).

A206. Vasilieva, Maria. "Dmytro Chyzhevsky and Petr Bitsilli on the "Problem of the double." Journal of Ukrainian Studies. 32.2 (Winter 2007): 33–46.

There was no personal contact between the Russian historian, philologist and literary critic Petr Mikhailovich Bitsilli (1879–1953) and Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. There were, however, various points of intersection of their scholarly interests. The most important subject of their intellectual relations was their common interest in Dostoevsky studies, and especially in "the problem of the double", one of the central ideas in many Dostoevsky works. Vasilieva's essay is part of the special issue of the Journal of Ukrainian Studies devoted to Dmytro Chyzhevs'kyi. For other contributions see Iryna Bondarevska (A189), Roman Mnich (A194), Werner Korthaase (A191), Maryna Tkachuk (A204) and Iryna Valiavko (A205).

A207. Andryczyk, Mark. "Traces of memory in Taras Prokhasko's prose." Ukrainian Quarterly. 66.1–2 (Spring-Summer 2010): 16–30.

Taras Prokhasko (born in 1968 and living in Ivano-Frankivsk) is the author of short story collections (Inshi dni Anny, FM Halychyna, Z tsioho mozhna zrobyty kil'ka opovidan), novels (Neprosti), interviews and essays. In analyzing these works Andryczyk attempts to demonstrate how Prokhasko "chooses to take on the challenges of telling stories that treat marginalized perspectives on history." In contemporary Ukraine, where the Ukrainian and especially the Galician point of view is still marginalized, says Andryczyk, "Prokhasko sees a nurturing of storytelling and of memory as more lasting and, ultimately, more powerful endeavor than simply presenting (a) history." Excerpts from Prokhasko's works are quoted both in the original Ukrainian and in translation.

A208. Bahry, Romana. "Existentialism and 'The leap of faith' in the works of Ukrainian writers of the sixties." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 196–214 Notes: 213–214.

A discussion of the influences of Franz Kafka's and Albert Camus' works and ideas on Valerii Shevchuk's novel Naberezhna 12 and on Mykhailo Osadchyi's memoir Bil'mo. Bahry focuses on absurdist and existentialist themes, on feelings of alienation, surrealist or expressionist distortion, "struggle and revolt in the face of absurdity", choice and responsibility of the individual, "authenticity as opposed to Bad Faith". An earlier version of this paper was presented at a conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1986.

A209. Balan, Jars. "The populist patriot: the life and literary legacy of Illia Kiriak." Re-imagining Ukrainian Canadians: History, politics, and identity. Ed. by Rhonda L. Hinther and Jim Mochoruk. Toronto: University of Toronto Press [2011]. 129–172. Notes: 162–172.

Illia Kiriak (also known as Illiia Kyriiak) (born 29 May 1888 in the village of Zavallia, Western Ukraine, died 28 December 1955 in Edmonton) is the author of the epic trilogy Syny zemli [English translation Sons of the Soil] which is—according to Jars Balan—"widely regarded by critics as one of the most significant and ambitious literary works produced in the Ukrainian language in Canada." Balan provides a detailed biography of Illia Kiriak, using the author's unpublished autobiography, Michael Marunchak's 1973 book Illia Kyriiak ta ioho tvorchist, as well as other materials found in Canadian archives.

A210. Bennett, Virginia. "Mythopoeia in Mykola Khvyl'ovyi's 'The Legend'." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 215–227. Notes: 227.

Bennett discusses the potential influence of Oleksandr Potebnia on the works of Mykola Khvylovyi. Potebnia, a professor of philology at Kharkiv university, was interested in and wrote, among other things, about "the process of creating of myths (mythopoeia) within the sphere of literary activity". Khvyl'ovyi, a Kharkiv writer active some decades later, says Bennett, "applied the literary devices and didactic goals of myth-making to his etude in lyrical prose, "Lehenda". A detailed analysis of this work is devoted to "Khvyl'ovyi's process of creating the mythopoeic archetype of the female warrrior who comes to the forefront during her country's time of crisis."

A211. Cap, Jean-Pierre. "Vasyl Barka's The Yellow Prince, a poetic requiem." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 228–249.

A shorter version of this article was read as a paper at a conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in June 2004. Cap's discussion of Vasyl Barka's novel Zhovtyi kniaz' is based on its French translation Le prince jaune, published by Gallimard in Paris in 1981. Barka's novel deals with the great famine in Ukraine in 1932–1933. Cap provides some historical background and a detailed examination of the novel's plot. In conclusion, he characterizes Barka's work as "one of the most esthetically enriching and humanizing literary works inspired by one of the catastrophic tragedies of the twentieth century."

A212. Chernetsky, Vitaly. "From anarchy to connectivity to cognitive mapping: Contemporary Ukrainian writers of the younger generation engage with globalization." Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 44. 1–2 (2010): 102–117.

Unlike the views on globalization grounded in politics and economy, globalization drawing on cultural anthropology, says Chernetsky, "offers an overwhelmingly positive view of postmodern celebration of difference and differentiation." Citing the hypothesis of John Tomlinson, that contemporary practitioners of culture aspire to a "low-key, modest cosmopolitanism" resulting from "the deterritorialization of mundane experience that increasingly opens the world to us", Chernetsky examines in some detail the work of Ukrainian writers Vasyl Makhno, Serhii Zhadan, Andrii Bondar, Natalka Sniadanko, and Oksana Lutsyshyna. Makhno's approach to globalization is characterized as "introspective, contemplative" retaining " much of the yearning for world culture of the high Modernist era". Zhadan, in the author's view, "is quintessentially a canny exploiter of the signifiers of globalized mass media" who "has found a voice and place of global anti-establishment solidarity." Bondar's works , says Chernetsky, "display a refined, melancholy sensitivity and a remarkable openness to 'complex connectivity', profound emotional kinship with a wide range of others." Sniadanko in her ironic prose, according to the author, "offers a cheeky subversion of numerous stereotypes of choices and behavior, ranging from educational to sexual..." Lutsyshyna is interested in psychoanalysis and displays 'complex connectivity' with feminist writings worldwide" and demonstrates "a readiness to deconstruct the stereotypes of femininity and motherhood". Among the youngest writers open to "heterogeneous global cultural influences ", Chernetsky briefly mentions Dmytro Lazutkin, Sashko Ushkalov, Sofiia Andrukhovych, Tania Maliarchuk, Irena Karpa and Liubko Deresh. This essay is part of a special issue of Canadian-American Slavic Studies devoted to various aspects of culture in contemporary post-Soviet Ukraine. For other articles in this issue dealing with literary topics see also Kononenko(A226), Pavlyshyn (A232), Rewakowicz (A233), and Shkandrij (A238).

A213. Chopyk, Dan B. "Unsuccessful heroes in Sobor by Oles ' Honchar (A case study of Soviet bureaucracy)." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 250–257.

Chopyk focuses on two protagonists of Honchar's novel Sobor—Volod'ka Loboda, a local party official, who—in the author's opinion—is "a successfully portrayed negative personage of the regimented Soviet society" and Mykola Bahlai, a young member of the Komsomol who criticizes party bureaucracy and is presented in the tradition of socialist realism as a positive hero, a man of the future. Soviet critics did not approve of this novel, but, says Chopyk, "Perestroika has shown the prophetic wisdom of Oles' Honchar.

A214. Humesky, Assya. "Grammatical structures in the lyrical poetry of Ivan Franko." In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 309–320.

The author's stated objective is "to take a closer look at the verbal texture of Franko's lyrics and to uncover the grammatical or structural means by which the poet projected his image and his message." She calls attention to such features as Franko's imperative tone, his affirmations and admonitions, his use of parables, quotes, and examples , as well as of persuasion and rationalization, and his prophetic vision. What could be characterized as a "typically Frankovian harshness of sound", according to Humesky, "is a deliberate persistent feature of his poetry."

A215. Humesky, Assya. "The idea of self-sacrifice in Lesia Ukrainka." In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 277–288.

Lesia Ukrainka "felt indignant about Christians 'usurping' for themsleves the noble idea of self-sacrifice..." says Humesky. Lesia "used many Biblical themes and motifs in her poetry... but she did it only in order to expound her own philosophical and political views as a sort of Aesopian device of double talk and allusions." Humesky traces the idea of self-sacrifice as developed in Lesia Ukrainka's works, especially in "Oderzhyma", "Kaminnyi hospodar", "Vila- posestra" and "Lisova pisnia". Excerpts are cited in the author's own translations.

A216. Humesky, Assya. "The idea of withdrawal from the world in Ivan Franko's work." In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 321–332.

Franko, says Humesky, was fascinated by "the idea of spiritual search, particularly in a total withdrawal from the world". This is reflected in a number of his works, but especially in the long poem "Ivan Vyshenskyi" and in his scholarly treatise of Vyshenskyi's life and work. Humesky analyzes the poem in considerable detail to show how Franko, despite the historical evidence of which he was well aware, attempted in his poem to make Vyshenskyi "into a heroic figure, a spiritual leader of the people."

A217. Humesky, Assya. "Marko Vovchok vs. Turgenev: Feminism vs. femininity." In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 587–596.

The author is concerned not with Turgenev's and Marko Vovchok's views on women's emancipation, but the writers' "intuitive feelings and psychological make-up which have a direct bearing on the way women are portrayed in their works." In Humesky's view, Marko Vovchok's women "appear strong even when paired with or contrasted to the strong male characters." while Turgenev's women "appear strong primarily by contrast with their weak male counterparts."

A218. Humesky, Assya. "Myroslav Marynovych: a poet in spite of himself." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 18–24.

Myroslav Marynovych spent seven years as a Soviet political prisoner. He has written very few poems and does not consider himself a poet. Humesky characterizes his poetry as "spontaneous outpourings of the soul" prompted by captivity, as poetry created by necessity, for self-preservation. What differentiates Marynovych's work from other dissident poets, says Humesky, is "the idea of forgiveness and reconciliation". Three poems are cited in full in the original Ukrainian with Humesky's literal prose translations.

A219. Humesky, Assya. "Myroslav Marynovych: a poet in spite of himself." In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 579–586. port.

For annotation see above A218.

A220. Humesky, Assya. "Shevelov's 'Dynamic approaches to literature'". In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 85–92.

Originally published in the Ukrainian Quarterly (2003). For annotation see "Ukrainian Literature in English: Selected articles in journals and collections", Ukrainian Quarterly. 66.1–2 (Spring-Summer 2010): 107.

A221. Humesky, Assya. "Sound expressivity in the poetry of Ivan Franko." In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 295–308.

Originally published in the Slavic and East European Journal ( Summer 1983). Humesky attempts , in her own words, " to uncover the basis of the vitality, strength and harshness which the poet valued and sought to instill in his verse" with special attention to "sound symbolism as a means of his poetic expressivity"... The sonnet "Sonety—tse raby. U formy puta" (cited in the original as well as in the author's own English translation) is analyzed in some detail.

A222. Humesky, Assya. "The Soviet Ukrainian fable". In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 53–69.

Humesky surveys the development of the Soviet Ukrainian fable focusing on the work of three authors: Vasyl Ellan-Blakytnyi, Mykyta Hodovanets and Serhii Pylypenko. Selected examples of their work are provided in the author's English translations. The article was originally published in the Minutes of the Seminar in Ukrainian Studies at Harvard University, 3 (1972–1973): 78–80.

A223. Humesky, Assya. "The Ukrainian Revolution in the works of writers- participants." . In her Selected Works = Vybrani pratsi. New York: Ukrainian-American Association of University Professors, 2011. 597–612.

"The medium of poetry seemed to be the most fitting expression for the violent emotions aroused by the revolution and so the majority of those who wrote about the Ukrainian revolution were poets," says Humesky. "They ranged in style from the Symbolists and the Neo-Classicists to the Futurists and the Proletarian poets, but they all shared certain motifs and images..." Humesky analyzes these themes, motifs and imagery and provides examples of works by Ievhen Pluzhnyk, Kost' Burevii, Maksym Ryl's'kyi, Oleksandr Oles', Pavlo Fylypovych, Serhii Pylypenko, Vasyl Ellan-Blakytnyi, Stepan Charnets'kyi, Roman Kupchyns'kyi, Mykhailo Kurakh, Bohdan Lepkyi, Bohdan Kravtsiv, Babai and Pavlo Tychyna in her own English translations. The article was originally published in the Ukrainian Quarterly in the Fall- Winter 1998 issue. In an unfortunate oversight, the Ukrainian-American satirical poet Babai (Bohdan Nyzhankivskyi) is credited with being a member of the Sichovi Stril'tsi (an apparent confusion with Oles Babii).

A224. Il'nyts'kyi, Mykola. "Literary traditions in poetry 'Beyond tradition'." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 24–42.

The New York Group of Ukrainian poets, despite its declarations of being against or beyond tradition, "became a link in the tradition", says Il'nyts'kyi. In his view, "The continuity of the literary process manifests itself not only in inheriting certain aesthetic principles but also in negating them—for negation is also a moment of connection." The author discusses parallels and commonalities between the New York Group on the one hand and such literary groupings as Moloda Muza, the Prague School and Shestydesiatnyky.

A225. Karpiak, Robert. "Kaminnyi hospodar in criticism: World-wide views of Lesia Ukrainka's Don Juan." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 146–162. Notes: 161–162.

An edited version of a paper delivered at a conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign in June 1982. Lesia Ukrainka's drama Kaminnyi hospodar—a unique Ukrainian interpretation of the Don Juan myth—has attracted considerable critical attention. Out of some eighty critical responses identified by the author for his research, the most important ones are selected for detailed critical examination. Karpiak divides them into general studies ( the works of Ievhen Nenadkevych, Clarence A. Manning, E. Reissner and Wendell Aycock), comparative studies (articles of Maria Ovcharenko, Walter Smyrniw, Stephen Chorney and Sofia Naumovych) and analytical studies (articles by Jaroslav Rozumnyj and Yurii Boiko).

A226. Kononenko, Natalie. "How God paired men and women: Stories and religious revival in post-Soviet rural Ukraine." Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 44. 1–2 (2010): 118–150. illus.

Report on a fieldwork in folklore in contemporary Ukraine. Religious stories were typically told not by men, but by women. According to Kononenko,. "the women were not trying to reaffirm hegemonic norms or to challenge them. Rather, through the stable, traditional , and seemingly ancient form of the religious story they were trying to come to terms with the new political and social realities." This article, which includes in the appendix a list of narrators, two examples of stories in the original and five illustrations of the religious rites, is part of a special issue of Canadian-American Slavic Studies devoted to various aspects of culture in contemporary post-Soviet Ukraine. For other articles in this issue dealing with literary topics see also Chernetsky (A212), Pavlyshyn (A232), Rewakowicz (A233), and Shkandrij (A238).

A227. Naydan, Michael M. "Echoes of other poets in the poetry of Lina Kostenko". Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 43–58. Notes: 57–58.

"Poetic traditions, both native and foreign, shape the way every poet writes, whether this be a subconscious or a conscious act", says Naydan. "The intertextuality of Kostenko's poetry operates on a number of levels ranging from the borrowing of individual words or images to overtly addressing particular poets, although Kostenko would be the first to deny categorically any kind of influence." Naydan examines stylistic or tonal intertextuality of Kostenko's poetry with the Russian poetry of Anna Akhmatova, the profound influence on her poetry of the Russian poet Alexander Blok, the source of inspiration, "a kind of mystical union" that Kostenko finds in the work of Maksym Ryl's'kyi, and Kostenko's great fondness for the poetry of the Russian poet Marina Tsvetaieva. Quotations from Kostenko's poetry are given in Naydan's English translations.

A228. Naydan, Michael M. "When you Google Gogol, you never get 'Hohol': the re-colonization of a Ukrainian writer." Ukrainian Quarterly. 66.1–2 (Spring- Summer 2010): 5–15.

Mykola Hohol, an ethnic Ukrainian, wrote in Russian and is better known as Nikolai Gogol. In Naydan's view, Gogol should be designated as a Ukrainian writer, just as James Joyce, who wrote in English, is usually characterized as an Irish writer. Naydan surveys the internet and encyclopedia entries on Gogol and says that "it is downright silly for certain chauvinistic types to re-colonize Hohol and to deny his ethnicity and nationality."

A229. Onyshkevych, Larissa. "A Soviet discourse on the Faustian metaphor in two Ukrainian plays : by Oleksandr Levada and Yurii Shcherbak." / Larissa M.L. Zaleska Onyshkevych. Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 162–174. Notes: 174.

Onyshkevych analyzes Oleksandr Levada's play "Faust i smert'" published in 1962 and Iurii Shcherbak's play "Nablyzhennia" published in 1984. Levada's play deals with a manned flight into space and employs a number of symbols and other elements modeled on Goethe's "Faust". His protagonists, however, are presented in black and white, as positive or negative types in the Soviet socialist realism tradition and, according to Onyshkevych, contrary to Goethe, "Levada introduced a different interpretation of the Faustian dilemma of the final moment, stressing the hero's personal pleasure..." Shcherbak in his play, says Onyshkevych, "turned to the ethical issue symbolized by the Faustian metaphor: sacrifice of spiritual or ethical values for the sake of power, or experience in the constant quest for knowledge." The play focuses on the life of a scientist working on a super computer which is supposed to "increase the practical and intellectual potential of humanity by means of artificial intelligence." Shcherbak's version, according to Onyshkevych "follows Goethe's approach" His protagonist, says Onyshkevych, "commits errors but not evil, and then proves his goodness." This article is based on a paper originally delivered at a conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in June 1986.

A230. Olynyk, Marta D. "The brave heart: themes and style in the poetry of Yevhen Pluzhnyk." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 59–76.

"Although Yevhen Pluzhnyk was neither an innovator nor a rebel, his poetic talent was distinctly original," says Olynyk. She examines in some detail Pluzhnyk's three poetry collections Dni (1926), Rannia osin (1927) and Rivnovaha (1948), provides a sketch of his biography (born 1898, died as a Soviet political priosoner in 1936), discusses his affinity with the German poet Rainer Maria Rilke. Olynyk considers Pluzhnyk "one of the prime representatives of impressionism in post-revolutionary Ukrainian poetry", "a master of the lyrical miniature that recreates a specific situation or mood." Quotations from Pluzhnyk's poetry are given in the original Ukrainian with Olynyk's literal prose translations.

A231. Pachlovska, Oxana. "Ukrainian literature in the diaspora: Between politics and culture." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 77–99.

For decades, says Pachlovska, "the Ukrainian Diaspora became custodian of a culture which, in the homeland, was prohibited, denied and buried." She discusses the slow and difficult process of reintegration of Ukrainian studies of the diaspora "into the cultural process of the homeland". Pachlovska singles out for special attention the writers of the so called Prague school of the 1920's, the MUR artistic movement in the post World War II DP camps in Germany , the New York Group of poets (established in 1958) and individual writers, such as Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Iurii Klen, Ivan Bahrianyi, Ulas Samchuk, Vasyl Barka, Evhen Malaniuk, Viktor Domontovych, Ihor Kostets'kyi, Mykhailo Orest, Oksana Liaturynska, Natalia Livytska- Kholodna, Vira Vovk, Oleh Zuievskyi, Emma Andievska, Marta Tarnavska, Moisei Fishbein. The work of the writers of the Diaspora who consider themselves to be "citizens of the Ukrainian language", according to Pachlovska, "testifies to the great resilience of their culture, which through them has not only survived, when it was near extinction, but has also come of age..."

A232. Pavlyshyn, Marko. "Defending the cultural nation before and after 1991: Ivan Dziuba." Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 44. 1–2 (2010): 25–43.

Ukraine's foremost literary critic and public intellectual Ivan Dziuba gained an international renown in the 1960's with the publication in the West of his book Internationalism or Russification. After his imprisonment in 1972 and following his release and his recantation, Dziuba published literary studies which conformed to official Soviet nationalities policy. After 1986, says Pavlyshyn, Dziuba returned " to the themes of the 1960's, advocating human rights and values on the one hand and, on the other, condemning the neglect of Ukrainian language and culture by Soviet officialdom and by much of Ukrainian society at large." Despite the apparent breach between Dziuba the dissident and Dziuba the conformist", accoding to Pavlyshyn, "there is a striking continuity of world-view in Dziuba's writings of all periods." Dziuba, says Pavlyshyn, "is a recipient of the heritage of the Enlightenment as filtered through the Marxism- Leninism that underlay his formal education. The central values for Dziuba are always human dignity and happiness, which are to be achieved through the full development of the potential of each human being and every human society." Pavlyshyn's essay is part of a special issue of Canadian-American Slavic Studies devoted to various aspects of culture in contemporary post-Soviet Ukraine. For other articles in this issue dealing with literary topics see also Chernetsky (A212), Kononenko (A226), Rewakowicz (A233), and Shkandrij (A238).

A233. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Geography matters: Regionalizm and identities in contemporary Ukrainian prose." Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 44. 1–2 (2010): 82–101.

Contemporary Ukrainian fiction, says Rewakowicz, provides interesting examples of "the literature of place and region", i.e. regional perspectives where "consideration of that place is presented through a specific historical perspective" and where "spatial and temporal parameters do not clash, but rather complement each other".The author discusses in this context the work of four writers—the Ukrainian writer Andrei Kurkov who writes in Russian and whose protagonist is the city of Kyiv (novels such as A Friend of the Deceased, Death and the Penquin and other works available in English translations), Oleksandr Irvanets' who writes about his native city Rivne (the novel Rivne/Rovno), Vasyl Kozhelianko, whose chosen place is Chernivtsi (the novel Defiliada v Moskvi) and Yuri Vynnychuk characterized as a "quintessentially Lviv author:" (the novel Malva Landa). Regionalism, according to Rewakowicz, "has penetrated Ukrainian contemporary prose to such an extent that it is impossible to ignore it in any critical assessment of the post-Soviet literary output." For other articles in this issue of Canadian-American Slavic Studies dealing with literary topics see also Chernetsky (A212), Kononenko (A226), Pavlyshyn (A232), and Shkandrij (A238).

A234. Rewakowicz, Maria G. "Significance vs. reception: Erotica in the poetry of the New York Group." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 100–111.

Rewakowicz discusses erotica in the poetry of Emma Andievs'ka, Iurii Tarnavs'kyi and Bohdan Boychuk—both on the surface level of mimosis and on the deeper, constant level of significance.. "By their open advocacy of existentialist platform", says Rewakowicz, "the poets of the New York Group clearly and manifestly contradicted their contemporary reading public's 'horizon of expectations'". She argues "that the strong undercurrent of eroticism in the poetic texts of the New York Group of poets was not only an expression of their aesthetic inclinations, but also very much an active undermining and challenging of the petit-bourgeois mentality of the contemporary Ukrainian émigré reader." Brief quotations from the three poets are given in Luba Gawur's English translations with Ukrainian originals in the footnotes.

A235. Rozumnyj, Jaroslav. "Myth and symbol in Leonid Kyselov's poetry." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 111–128.

Leonid Kyselov (1946–1968) was a Kyiv poet who in the last year of his life switched from Russian to Ukrainian, "at time when the Ukrainian language was being deliberately downgraded by all levels of society", says Rozumnyj.He regards Kyselov's change to Ukrainian as "a psychological and even moral act". Rozumnyj analyzes both Russian and Ukrainian poetry of Kyselov and finds that Kyselov uses symbols, myths and legends (mostly from world literature) with "consistency, originality of imagery, intellectual precision and ironic acuity". Poetic excerpts are cited in the original with literal line-by-line English translations.

A236. Saciuk, Olena H. "The sorcerer and his apprentices: Oles' Berdnyk's narrative technique and style." " Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 257–271. Notes: 270–271.

This article was presented originally as a paper at a conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in June of 1982. Oles' Berdnyk, according to Saciuk, "uses a multi- dimensional and intricate narrative technique to hold his readers of fantasy and science fiction enthralled while he casts his incantations about man's next evolutionary leap." She examines Berdnyk's novels "Okotsvit" and " Zorianyi korsar", as well as his shorter pieces "Marsians'ki zaitsi" and "Kazka".

A237. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "Colonial, anti-colonial and postcolonial in Ukrainian Literature." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 282–297. Notes: 294–297.

Presented originally at a conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in June 1982. A discussion of arguments pro and con of "the relevance of colonial discourse analysis in examinations of Ukrainian literature." "The extent to which the Ukrainian elite willingly cooperated in the dissemination of an imperial ideology..." says Shkandrij "requires closer investigation." He points out to the "asymmetrical power relationships of Russian, Polish and Ukrainian societies" and restates the opinion of many Ukrainian scholars, "that no understanding of Ukrainian literature's development is possible without accounting for the underlying political discourse."

A238. Shkandrij, Myroslav. "The shifting object of desire: the poetry of Oleksandr Irvanets." Canadian-American Slavic Studies. 44.1–2 (2010): 67–81.

Oleksandr Irvanets' belongs to a group of writers known for their "irreverent, ironic, and often humorous reworking of the Ukrainian-self-image", says Shkandrij. Th author focuses on Irvanets's parody of Volodymyr Sosiura's poem "Liubit ' Ukrainu", on his poems, "Eine kleine Nachtmusik", "Uroky klasyky: Tsykl", "Deputatska pisnia", as well as on his stories "Lvivska brama" and the novel Rivne/Rovno and provides a detailed analysis of these works. Excerpts from the poems discussed are cited in the original and in English translations. "By revealing the link between the political and the erotic, and by exposing unconscious assumptions behind language'' says Shkandrij, Irvanets "asks readers to question the way fundamental belief systems are constructed.". For other articles in this issue of Canadian-American Slavic Studies dealing with literary topics see also Chernetsky (A212), Kononenko (A226), Pavlyshyn (A232), and Rewakowicz (A233).

A239. Struk, Danylo Husar. "A novel about human destiny or the Andiievska Chronicle." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 297–310.

An edited version of a paper presented at a conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in June of 1982. Struk provides a critical analysis of Emma Andievs'ka's novel Roman pro liuds'ke pryznachennia. The novel deals with Ukrainians displaced by World War II and, says Struk, Andieievs'ka "moves freely in time from one decade to another and mixes various episodes from the destinies of her characters to produce, what may best be termed, a chronicle of the collective experience of the Ukrainians in the Diaspora." Excerpts from the novel are cited both in the original and in Struk's English translation.

A240. Tarnawsky, Maxim. "Nietzschean themes in the works of Valeriian Pidmohyl'nyi." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 311–323.

Pidmohyl'nyi's works discussed here are the short stories "Problema khliba", "Sobaka", "Syn", "Na seli", and the novels Misto and Nevelychka drama. The author focuses on allusions to Nietzsche or his ideas, such as transformations of character, "polarity symbolized by Apollo and Dionysus", individual responses to alienation and inadequacy, cultural crisis, the will to power. "Pidmohyl'nyi sees Nietzsche filtered through a quarter century of critical reactions and he has a skeptical attitude toward Nietzsche's values," says Tarnawsky, and concludes: "Pidmohyl'nuyi is not a writer who reveals a Nietzschean influence but rather a writer who exhibits the impact of Nietzsche's ideas." Excerpts from Pidmohyl'nyi's prose are cited both in the original and in the author's English translation.

A241. Tarnawsky, Yuriy. "The New York Group and the Kyiv School: Poetry of two cities." Twentieth Century Ukrainian Literature: Essays in honor of Dmytro Shtohryn. Ed. by Jaroslav Rozumnyj. Kyiv: Kyiv Mohyla Academy Publ. House, 2011. 129–144.

The author makes a comparison of two groups of Ukrainian poets: the New York Group established in the 1950's and consisting of a core of seven: Emma Andievs'ka, Bohdan Boichuk, Bohdan Rubchak, Patrytsiia Kylyna, Bohdan Rubchak, Iurii Tarnavs'kyi and Zhenia Vasyl'kivs'ka and the Kyiv School active in the 1970's whose prominent members included Vasyl' Holoborod'ko, Mykola Vorobiov, Viktor Kordun and Mykhailo Hryhoriv. In characterizing the NYGroup, the author stresses the poets ' pessimistic existentialist motifs and alienation which led to hermeticism, the Spanish and Latin American influences on their poetry, their "radically de-poeticized language". The poetry of the Kyiv School, in the author's opinion, "bore a striking resemblance to the poetry of the NYG"—free-verse, de poeticized language and deeply personal topics". But it was also different, says Tarnawsky, it was "truly modern poetry which was undeniably Ukrainian and unlike anything else. Ukrainian poetry had finally shed the Western poetics... and showed its true self in the form of free verse." Examples of poetry of both groups are given in unattributed (perhaps the author's own? ) English translations.

A242. Tolochko, Oleksiy. "On 'Nestor the Chronicler'." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Ukrainian Philology and Linguistics in the Twenty-first Century. Ed. by Michael S. Flier. 29.1–4 (2007 ©2011): 31–59. Notes: 50–59.

The author questions the authenticity of Nestor's authorship of the medieval chronicle Povist vremennykh lit. According to Tolochko, "The real Nestor, a monk of the Caves Monastery, authored two very important lives but hardly contributed to the chronicle writing. He was an excellent writer in his own right, but he should be denied the honor of composing the Primary Chronicle."

A243. Ziffer, Giorgio. "The shadow and the truth: On the textual tradition of the Sermon on Law and Grace attributed to Metropolitan Hilarion." Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Ukrainian Philology and Linguistics in the Twenty-first Century. Ed. by Michael S. Flier. 29.1–4 (2007 ©2011): 19–30. Notes: 28–30.

The treatise entitled On Law and Grace [i.e. Slovo o zakoni i blahodati, attributed to Ilarion] is acccording to Ziffer, "one of the most famous works" "of medieval East Slavic literature". Despite the many studies of this work, however, says Ziffer, "not a single edition can fully be defined as a critical edition". He questions "the almost unconditional esteem" of the Synodal manuscript of the work and calls for new evaluations of the evidence provided by other textual witnesses.

(To be continued).